User: jvdc

Published Content

Article
The ancient Near East, and the Fertile Crescent in particular, is generally seen as the birthplace of agriculture. In the fourth millennium BC this area was more temperate than it is today, and it was blessed with fertile soil, two great rivers (the Euphrates and the Tigris), as well as hills and mountains to the north. The region was highly diverse... [continue reading]
Article
In ancient Mesopotamia the family was the basic unit of society that was governed by specific patriarchal rules. Monogamy was the rule, even though the nobility could have concubines. The purchase of wives from their fathers was common, but the practice became less common after 3000 BC. The woman was allowed to do anything and go anywhere, including conducting... [continue reading]
Article

Cuneiform Writing

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 18 January 2012
Writing is undeniably one of humanity's most important inventions. The earliest forms of storing information on objects were numerical inscriptions on clay tablets, used for administration, accounting and trade. The first writing system dates back to around 3000 BC, when the Sumerians developed the first type script: hundreds of abbreviated pictograms that... [continue reading]
Article

New light on Neolithic revolution in south-west Asia

by Trevor Watkins
published on 18 December 2012
Shortly after his retirement from a distinguished career in the Department of Archaeology at Edinburgh, the author gave the Rhind Lectures for 2009, bringing together his thoughts about the Neolithic revolution, and comparing Childe’s ideas with today’s. These lectures, summarised here, announced the modern vision to a wide audience. It... [continue reading]
Article
Modern scholarly tradition has established that two fundamental rules regulated the use of torture in ancient Rome: torture must not be applied to Roman citizens or to slaves against their owners. It is commonly thought that during the Republic these principles were breached but exceptionally, whereas under the Empire their violation became ever more frequent... [continue reading]
Article

Agrippa: The Emperor Who Almost Was

by P.Y. Forsyth
published on 11 June 2012
Augustus, the first Roman emperor, has what modern media analysts call a high “Q” quotient – that is, most people recognize his name even is they do not really know very much about him. Indeed, the achievement of Augustus in rescuing the Roman empire from political chaos and re-establishing it upon a firm political, economic and social... [continue reading]
Article

Herodotus on Lydia

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 18 January 2012
I:93. Of marvels to be recorded the land of Lydia has no great store as compared with other lands, excepting the gold-dust which is carried down from Tmolos; but one work it has to show which is larger far than any other except only those in Egypt and Babylon: for there is there the sepulchral monument of Alyattes the father of Croesus, of which the base... [continue reading]
Article

Herodotus on Babylon

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 18 January 2012
I:192. As to the resources of the Babylonians how great they are, I shall show by many other proofs and among them also by this: For the support of the great king and his army, apart from the regular tribute the whole land of which he is ruler has been distributed into portions. Now whereas twelve months go to make up the year, for four of these he has... [continue reading]
Article

Herodotus on Cats in Egypt

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 18 January 2012
II:66. Of the animals that live with men there are great numbers, and would be many more but for the accidents which befall the cats. For when the females have produced young they are no longer in the habit of going to the males, and these seeking to be united with them are not able. To this end then they contrive as follows, they either take away by force... [continue reading]
Article

Herodotus on Burial in Egypt

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 18 January 2012
II:85. Their fashions of mourning and of burial are these: Whenever any household has lost a man who is of any regard amongst them, the whole number of women of that house forthwith plaster over their heads or even their faces with mud. Then leaving the corpse within the house they go themselves to and fro about the city and beat themselves, with their garments... [continue reading]
Article

History of Assyria

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 18 January 2012
The foundation of the Assyrian dynasty can be traced to Zulilu, who is said to have lived after Bel-kap-kapu (c. 1900 BCE), the ancestor of Shalmaneser I. The city-state of Ashur rose to prominence in northern Mesopotamia, founding trade colonies in Cappadocia. King Shamshi-Adad I (1813-1791 BCE) expanded the domains of Ashur by defeating the kingdom... [continue reading]
Article

Phoenician Names

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 18 January 2012
Phoenician names are generally composite words with a specific meaning. The naming of children had a significance in the Ancient Near East that is difficult to understand nowadays. By choosing a name for their child, the parents could not only celebrate their joy of having created life, but they believed that the naming of the child would greatly influence... [continue reading]
Article

Umami and the foods of classical antiquity

by Robert I Curtis
published on 01 December 2012
Umami is the taste of foods that are rich in glutamic acid and 2 ribonucleotides, 5#-inosinate and 5#-guanylate. This distinctive taste of modern Eastern cuisine, which is finding a receptive audience in the Western hemisphere, characterized many dishes that ancient Romans consumed 2000 y ago. Romans enjoyed numerous foods that are identified today... [continue reading]
Article

Bronze Age Fortifications: A Dualistic Interpretation

by Jessica Paga
published on 01 December 2012
The Cyclopean fortifications surrounding the Bronze Age sites of Mycenae, Tiryns, Athens, and Gla were constructed for two reasons: as a military defense system and as a tangible and persuasive articulation of wealth, power, and authority. The architecture of these walls, therefore, is significant both for the study of Bronze Age politics on mainland Greece... [continue reading]
Article

Greek vase painters and potters

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 02 August 2011
We know the names of some potters and painters of Greek vases because they signed their work. Generally a painter signed his name followed by some form of the verb 'painted', while a potter (or perhaps the painter writing for him) signed his name with 'made'. Sometimes the same person might both pot and paint: Exekias and Epiktetos... [continue reading]
Article
The system of names used today for Greek vases has quite rightly been described by one leading scholar as 'chaotic'. Many of the names were first applied in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by scholars who tried to fit the names of pots that they knew from Greek and Latin literature or inscriptions to the pieces then surfacing from excavations... [continue reading]
Article

Culture Contact, Cultural Integration and Difference: A Case from Northern Mesopotamia

by Sevil Baltali, Department of Anthropology, Yeditepe University, Turkey
published on 04 June 2012
Ancient northern Mesopotamia reveals the presence of southern Uruk-style material cultural elements along with indigenous styles in fourth millennium B.C.E. In this study, I argue that we need to focus on the ways northern Mesopotamian societies constructed ‘cultural difference’ through an analysis of the meanings of southern-style elements... [continue reading]
Article

History of the Hittites

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 18 January 2012
Hittite is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa (Hittite URUḪattuša) in northern Anatolia from the 18th century BCE. In the 14th century BCE, the Hittite Kingdom was at its height, encompassing central Anatolia, south-western Syria as far as Ugarit... [continue reading]
Article
The Carthaginians are also considered to have an excellent form of government, which differs from that of any other state in several respects, though it is in some very like the Spartan. Indeed, all three states---the Spartan, the Cretan, and the Carthaginian---nearly resemble one another, and are very different from any others. Many of the Carthaginian institutions... [continue reading]
Article

Firing Athenian black and red figure vases

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 02 August 2011
A distinctive red and black colour scheme characterises most of the painted pottery of sixth- and fifth-century Athens. The colours result from the skilful exploitation of the high iron content of Athenian clay by an ingenious process of differential firing. The black areas of a black or red-figured pot were coated in a fine solution of the same clay... [continue reading]
Article

Making and decorating Athenian black- and red-figure vases

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 02 August 2011
The first stage in making a pot is to dig the clay out of the ground. Pieces of grit or plant matter must be removed before the clay can be used. This was done in ancient times, as it is today, by mixing the clay with water and letting the heavier impurities sink to the bottom. This process could be carried out as many times as necessary. When judged... [continue reading]
Article

The Battle of Colmar (58 BCE): Caesar against Ariovistus

by Jona Lendering
published on 03 August 2011
The Battle of Colmar (58 BCE): one of the first battles of the Gallic War, in which Caesar defeated an army led by the Germanic leader Ariovistus. In 58, Julius Caesar had invaded Central Gaul. The pretext had been the plan of the Helvetians to migrate to Aquitania, something that the Roman general considered unacceptable. After he had defeated... [continue reading]
Article

Assyrian reliefs

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 03 August 2011
Mostly dating from the period 880-612 BC, these carved scenes are found on free-standing stelae and as panels cut on cliffs and rocks at distant places reached by the Assyrian kings during their campaigns. The most spectacular use of stone reliefs, however, was as panels which decorated the mud-brick walls in palaces and temples up to a height of 2.6 metres... [continue reading]
Article

The health of Iron Age Britons

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 03 August 2011
It is likely that many people in Iron Age Britain would have died from diseases as babies or children. Many of those people who survived to be adults rarely lived beyond the ages of 35-45. Only about a third of all adults lived longer. Studies of the bones of Iron Age people suggest that at least a quarter suffered from arthritis in their backs from... [continue reading]
Article

The people of Iron Age Britain

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 03 August 2011
The people of Iron Age Britain were physically very similar to many modern Europeans and there is no reason to suppose that all Iron Age Britons had the same hair colour, eye colour or skin complexion. Iron Age Britons spoke one or more Celtic language, which probably spread to Britain through trade and contacts between people rather than by the invasion... [continue reading]
Article

Scribes in ancient Mesopotamia

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 03 August 2011
Literacy was not widespread in Mesopotamia. Scribes, nearly always men, had to undergo training, and having successfully completed a curriculum became entitled to call themselves dubsar, which means 'scribe'. They became members of a privileged élite who, like scribes in ancient Egypt, might look with contempt upon their fellow citizens... [continue reading]
Article

Old Babylonian Period

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 03 August 2011
The Old Babylonian Period describes south Mesopotamia in the period about 2000-1600 BC. The early years saw a number of important states dominating the region: Isin, Larsa, Eshnunna and, from 1894 BC, Babylon. Babylon was ruled by a dynasty of Amorite kings. The sixth ruler was Hammurapi. who defeated the other southern states and expanded his control... [continue reading]
Article

Illness and medicine in Roman Britain

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 05 August 2011
Although medical science was still in its infancy during Roman times, knowledge of medicinal plants was widespread and sick people may have been treated with herbal remedies by relatives and friends. Environment, diet, exercise and hygiene all had a part to play in a positive approach to health. Most towns had latrines, a sewage disposal system and baths... [continue reading]
Article

Libyan' Inscriptions in Numidia and Mauretania

by Jona Lendering
published on 08 August 2011
When the Numidian king Massinissa (c.241-148) died, the people of Dougga (or: Thugga) decided to build a monument in his honour. A bilingual inscription (RIL 2, KAI 101) says the building was erected in the tenth reign year of his successor Micipsa (139/8 BC). One part of the inscription was written in Punic. The other part looks like a series of geometrical... [continue reading]
Article

Disease and death in the ancient city of Rome

by Walter Scheidel
published on 14 October 2011
This paper surveys textual and physical evidence of disease and mortality in the city of Rome in the late republican and imperial periods. It emphasizes the significance of seasonal mortality data and the weaknesses of age at death records and paleodemographic analysis, considers the complex role of environmental features and public infrastructure... [continue reading]
Article

Roman Healing Spas in Itaiy: A Study in Design and Function

by Tana Joy Allen
published on 14 October 2011
A spa is defined as a bathing establishment which used thermal-mineral spring water for therapeutic purposes. Although the topics of bathing and medicine in the Roman world have received considerable attention, thermal-mineral spas have remained inadequately studied. Recent research acknowledges the importance of spas, but generally excludes any detailed... [continue reading]
Article

Illyrian policy of Rome in the late republic and early principate

by Danijel Dzino
published on 14 October 2011
This thesis examines the development of Roman Illyrian policy, from the late Republican hegemony over the region to the establishment of permanent imperial frontiers on the Danube and the beginning of the process that would integrate Illyricum ( the area between the Adriatic Sea and the River Danube ) into the Roman Empire. This thesis has two principal... [continue reading]
Article
In this paper I argue that statist (or “despotic”) assumptions of royal power does not adequately describe the nature of political power in the Ptolemaic development of Egypt. I examine the process of Ptolemaic state formation from the point of view of the expansion and the settlement of the Fayyum, the foundation of Ptolemais in the Thebaid... [continue reading]
Article

History of Ancient Egyptian Obstetrics and Gynecology: A Review

by Izharul Hasan, Mohd Zulkifle, A.H.Ansari, A.M.K. Sherwani, and Mohd Shakir
published on 15 October 2011
For its time, the study and practice of medicine in Ancient Egypt was revolutionary. Primitive by today’s standards, physicians in Egypt nonetheless showed great initiative and impressive knowledge of the human body and its inner workings, as well as the treatment of illness and disease. Surgical intervention was never recommended, and the main treatment... [continue reading]
Article

Alexandria: Library of Dreams

by Bagnall, Roger S. (Professor of Classics and History Columbia University)
published on 04 June 2012
My title does not intend to suggest that the Alexandrian Library did not exist, but it does point to what I regard as the unreal character of much that has been said about it. The disparity between, on the one hand, the grandeur and importance of this library, both in its reality in antiquity and in its image both ancient and modern, and, on the other... [continue reading]
Article

The instrumental value of others and institutional change: An Athenian case study

by Josiah Ober, Stanford University
published on 07 November 2011
A primary motive for certain Athenian rule changes in the direction of increased legal access and impartiality in the fourth century B.C. was Athenian awareness of the increased instrumental value of foreigners. New Athenian rules were aimed at persuading foreigners to do business in Athens. Foreigners gained greater access to some Athenian institutions... [continue reading]
Article

Epistemic democracy in classical Athens

by Josiah Ober, Stanford University
published on 07 November 2011
Analysis of democracy in Athens as an “epistemic” (knowledge-based) form of political and social organization. Adapted from Ober, Democracy and Knowledge, chapters 1-4. Jon Elster (ed.), volume on “Collective Wisdom” (to be published in English and French).
Article

The original meaning of democracy: Capacity to do things, not majority rule

by Josiah Ober, Stanford University
published on 07 November 2011
That the original meaning of democracy is “capacity to do things” not “majority rule” emerges from a study of the fifth and fourth century B.C. Greek vocabulary for regime-types. Special attention is given to –kratos root and –arche root terms. Paper delivered at the American Political Science Association meetings, Philadelphia, 2006.
Article

Socrates and democratic Athens

by Josiah Ober, Stanford University
published on 07 November 2011
Socrates was both a loyal citizen (by his own lights) and a critic of the democratic community’s way of doing things. This led to a crisis in 339 B.C. In order to understand Socrates’ and the Athenian community’s actions (as reported by Plato and Xenophon) it is necessary to understand the historical and legal contexts, the democratic state’s... [continue reading]
Article

Watching the Great Sea of Beauty: Thinking the Ancient Greek Mediterranean

by Constanze Güthenke, Princeton University
published on 07 November 2011
This is a contribution to be published in a volume entitled Mediterranean Studies, edited by Roberto Dainotto and Eric Zakim for the Modern Language Association (MLA), as part of a new MLA series on Transnational Literatures. The editors had asked their contributors to respond to their introduction in which they encourage new ways of conceptualizing cultural... [continue reading]
Article

Cult and Belief in Punic and Roman Africa

by Brent D. Shaw, Princeton University
published on 07 November 2011
This is a second attempt at a synthesis of the main problems for the forthcoming Cambridge History of Ancient Religions. The problems are complex and still threaten to overwhelm. This version remains a cri de coeur: any helpful comments and criticisms are encouraged.
Article

Tiberius the Wise

by Edward Champlin, Princeton University
published on 07 November 2011
This is one of five parerga preparatory to a book to be entitled Tiberius on Capri, which will explore the interrelationship between culture and empire, between Tiberius’ intellectual passions (including astrology, gastronomy, medicine, mythology, and literature) and his role as princeps. These five papers do not so much develop an argument as explore... [continue reading]
Article

The Palaikastro Hymn and the modern myth of the Cretan Zeus

by Mark Alonge, Stanford University
published on 07 November 2011
The Palaikastro Hymn—better known as the Hymn of the Kouretes—does not celebrate a god of pre-Hellenic pedigree, who is Zeus in name only, as scholars have believed with virtual unanimity. Rather, an understanding of the conventions of Greek hymnic performance in its ritual context goes far to elucidating many of the ostensibly peculiar features... [continue reading]
Article

The Deadly Styx River and the Death of Alexander

by Adrienne Mayor, Stanford University and Antoinette Hayes, Pfizer Pharmaceuticals
published on 07 November 2011
Plutarch, Arrian, Diodorus, Justin, and other ancient historians report that rumors of poisoning arose after the death of Alexander in Babylon in 323 B.C. Alexander’s close friends suspected a legendary poison gathered from the River Styx in Arcadia, so corrosive that only the hoof of a horse could contain it. It’s impossible to know the... [continue reading]
Article

Shock and Awe: The Performance Dimension of Galen’s Anatomy Demonstrations

by Maud W. Gleason, Stanford University
published on 07 November 2011
Galen’s anatomical demonstrations on living animals constitute a justly famous chapter in the history of scientific method. This essay, however, examines them as a social phenomenon. Galen’s demonstrations were competitive. Their visual, cognitive and emotional impact (often expressed by compounds of ѳαῦμα and ἔκπληξι&sigmaf... [continue reading]
Article

Pharaonic Egypt and the Ara Pacis in Augustan Rome

by Jennifer Trimble, Stanford University
published on 07 November 2011
This paper explores processes of cultural appropriation, and specifically Augustan visual receptions of pharaonic Egypt. As a test case, I consider the possibility of Egyptianizing precedents for the Ara Pacis, including the architecture of Middle and New Kingdom jubilee chapels. This requires looking at the Augustan interventions into the traditional... [continue reading]
Article

Narratives of Roman Syria

by Lidewijde de Jong, Stanford University
published on 07 November 2011
In this paper I examine the scholarship of Roman Syria and the history of research on this province. The scholarly narrative of Roman Syria revolves around strong Greek influence and little impact of Roman rule, which has resulted in studying Syria as a unique and distinct entity, separated from Rome. In light of new archaeological finds and a re-evaluation... [continue reading]
Article

The collapse and regeneration of complex society in Greece, 1500-500 BC

by Ian Morris, Stanford University
published on 07 November 2011
Greece between 1500 and 500 BC is one of the best known examples of the phenomenon of the regeneration of complex society after a collapse. I review 10 core dimensions of this process (urbanism, tax and rent, monuments, elite power, information- recording systems, trade, crafts, military power, scale, and standards of living), and suggest that punctuated equilibrium... [continue reading]
Article

The growth of Greek cities in the first millennium BC

by Ian Morris, Stanford University
published on 07 November 2011
In this paper I trace the growth of the largest Greek cities from perhaps 1,000- 2,000 people at the beginning of the first millennium BC to 400,000-500,000 at the millennium’s end. I examine two frameworks for understanding this growth: Roland Fletcher’s discussion of the interaction and communication limits to growth and Max Weber’s... [continue reading]
Article

Ancient Egyptian herbal wines

by Patrick E. McGoverna, Armen Mirzoianb, and Gretchen R. Halla (Museum Applied Science Center for Archaeology, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA)
published on 25 June 2013
Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the beginning of advanced ancient Egyptian culture, ca. 3150 B.C., and continuing for millennia have revealed that a range of natural products—specifically, herbs and tree resins—were dispensed by grape wine. These findings provide chemical evidence for ancient Egyptian organic... [continue reading]
Article

Natural history in Herodotus’ "Histories"

by Valeria Viatcheslavova Sergueenkova
published on 14 November 2011
This thesis argues that Herodotus should be considered in the context of early Greek science, and in the history of the development of Greek speculative thought in general, not only because of the range of his interests which includes questions about the causes and processes underlying natural phenomena but also because of his methodological self-awareness... [continue reading]
Image

Greek Harbour Scene

by CA
published on 16 October 2013
Artist's impression of how a harbour scene in ancient Greece may have looked.
Image

Market Scene

by SEGA
published on 16 October 2013
This is an artist's impression of how an ancient Greek or Roman agora or forum (market) may have looked like.
Article

Financial Intermediation in the Early Roman Empire

by Peter Temin
published on 21 November 2011
In this paper I use a theoretical hierarchy of financial sources to evaluate the effectiveness of financial markets in the early Roman Empire. I first review the theory of financial intermediation to describe the hierarchy of financial sources and survey briefly the history of financial intermediation in pre-industrial Western Europe to provide a standard... [continue reading]
Article

The Batavian Revolt

by Jona Lendering
published on 28 November 2011
Batavian revolt was a rebellion of the Batavians against the Romans in 69-70. After initial successes by their commander Julius Civilis, the Batavians were ultimately defeated by the Roman general Quintus Petillius Cerialis. The year of the four emperors A century had passed since the emperor Augustus (27 BCE-14 CE) had changed the Roman republic... [continue reading]
Article

The beginnings of the written culture in Antiquity

by M. Isabel Panosa
published on 28 November 2011
This paper proposes an analysis of writing as a system for communication, since its origins, in terms of its uses and socio-cultural context. We shall also look to review and comment on the way in which it has evolved in time and space and its primordial domains for expression. Likewise, we shall look at the current state of affairs with respect to graphic communication... [continue reading]
Article

Romulus, Remus and the Foundation of Rome

by H Strassburger
published on 28 November 2011
Besides Aeneas, there were always Romulus and Remus. The existence of this second foundation myth posed two important problems to scholars. How strong were its credentials, and how should it be analysed? On the first point, notably, considerable progress has been made in recent times. Since the late nineteenth century many scholars have repeatedly argued... [continue reading]
Article
The maintenance of a garrison in a city or a region was for many a Hellenistic power a comfortable alternative to conquest and direct administration. Every major power held garrisons in dependent settlements of various legal statuses, usually in dependent poleis. The establishment of garrisons, the duration of their presence, and their removal was... [continue reading]
Article

North Africa During the Classical Period

by Library of Congress
published on 15 December 2011
Phoenician traders arrived on the North African coast around 900 B.C. and established Carthage (in present-day Tunisia) around 800 B.C. By the sixth century B.C., a Phoenician presence existed at Tipasa (east of Cherchell in Algeria). From their principal center of power at Carthage, the Carthaginians expanded and established small settlements (called emporia... [continue reading]
Article

The History of Ancient India

by Library of Congress
published on 15 December 2011
The earliest imprints of human activities in India go back to the Paleolithic Age, roughly between 400,000 and 200,000 B.C. Stone implements and cave paintings from this period have been discovered in many parts of the South Asia. Evidence of domestication of animals, the adoption of agriculture, permanent village settlements, and wheel-turned pottery... [continue reading]
Article

The Celts in Iberia

by Alberto J. Lorrio and Gonzalo Ruiz Zapater
published on 20 December 2011
A general overview of the study of the Celts in the Iberian Peninsula is offered from a critical perspective. First, we present a brief history of research and the state of research on ancient written sources, linguistics, epigraphy and archaeological data. Second, we present a different hypothesis for the “Celtic” genesis in Iberia by applying... [continue reading]
Article
This article is concerned with the shaping of the annual narrative in historical writers working in the Roman annalistic tradition and contests the view that Livy and his predecessors conformed to a standard pattern from which Tacitus departed. It is true that Livy in Books 21-45 employs a regular internal–external–internal pattern based... [continue reading]
Article

Gender and Ethnicity in the Aeneid

by Burke, Rhiannon Christine
published on 05 January 2012
The women of Vergil’s Aeneid are among the poem’s most memorable characters. Readers and scholars alike have given much thought to the doomed, love-struck Dido in particular, and the traditional interpretation of this character has been one that positions her as a pitiable foil to Aeneas, an antagonist who serves to underscore the necessity... [continue reading]
Article

Submission Fighting and the Rules of Ancient Greek Wrestling

by Christopher Miller
published on 05 January 2012
The Ancient Greek sports are remarkable in human history and instructive to those interested in promoting athletics due to their recorded longevity of more than a millennium, their high levels of participation amongst the people of the time, and the great degree of enthusiasm clearly demonstrated for these sports through period artwork and through remunerations... [continue reading]
Article

Hesiod’s Works and Days: Moral or Practical Teaching?

by Panayiotis P. Mavrommatis
published on 04 June 2012
Hesiod’s Works and Days is undeniably a didactic poem. It is concerned with real problems of mankind. At a first glance it may seem as a practical guide to living and prospering in the Ancient Greek world. The title itself, along with the many parts of the poem that deal with practical issues can lead one to this conclusion. A more careful analysis... [continue reading]
Article

Third Dynasty of Ur (Ur III)

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 09 January 2012
Following the collapse of the Agade empire, the centre of power in southern Mesopotamia shifted to the cities of Uruk and Ur. The governor of Ur, Ur-Nammu, established a dynasty which came to dominate the other cities of the region, and whose territory stretched east into Iran. Under his successor, Shulgi, the empire was consolidated and centralised... [continue reading]
Article

Infrastructure Protection in the Ancient World

by Michael J. Assante
published on 13 January 2012
This paper provides lessons learned from ancient Roman attempts to protect the aqueduct, which was considered one of their most critical infrastructures. It also offers an analogy to modern day efforts in securing our own critical infrastructures, particularly the United States’ electric power grid. Contemporary societies owe much to the Romans... [continue reading]
Article

The Madness of the Emperor Caligula

by A. T. Sandison
published on 30 January 2012
Throughout the centuries the name of Caligula has been synonymous with madness and infamy, sadism and perversion. It has been said that Marshal Gilles de Rais, perhaps the most notorious sadist of all time, modelled his behaviour. on that of the evil Caesars described by Suetonius, among whom is numbered Caligula. Of recent years, however, Caligula... [continue reading]
Article

Theon of Alexandria and Hypatia

by Michael Lambrou
published on 18 January 2012
In this paper we present the story of the most famous ancient female mathematician, Hypatia, and her father Theon of Alexandria. The mathematician and philosopher Hypatia flourished in Alexandria from the second part of the 4th century until her violent death incurred by a mob in 415. She was the daughter of Theon of Alexandria, a mathematician... [continue reading]
Article

Is Sexuality Sacred? A Biblical Connection

by Renata Alexandre
published on 30 January 2012
The Christian Church has been in an uneasy relationship with sexuality nearly since her inception. In such a context, affirming sexuality is extremely difficult. The Biblical record does not appear to affirm human sexuality either. Yet, there is some evidence to affirm human sexuality in the Biblical text if we examine the ancient Hebrew way of knowing... [continue reading]
Article

Female leadership in the ancient synagogue

by Bernadette J. Brooten
published on 06 February 2012
Jewish women in the ancient Mediterranean lived side by side with communities in which women carried out religious functions, including ritual functions, for example, as high priestesses of the imperial cult and female functionaries in the Isis religion. Similarly, Christian women at this time acted as apostles, prophets, teachers, stewards, deacons, church... [continue reading]
Article

The Historical Origins and Development of Gandhara Art

by Iqtidar Karamat Cheema
published on 30 January 2012
The region of Gandhara was the part of Achaemenian Empire in the time of Cyrus the great in 6th century B.C. It remained under the Persian domination for more than two centuries until Alexander the Great conquered it in 326 B.C. By 317 B.C. the last of the Greek forces of Alexander had departed from the country and in just 20 years the Greek rule disintegrated... [continue reading]
Article

The Etruscans: A Population-Genetic Study

by Cristiano Vernesi et al.
published on 01 February 2012
The origins of the Etruscans, a non-Indo-European population of preclassical Italy, are unclear. There is broad agreement that their culture developed locally, but the Etruscans’ evolutionary and migrational relationships are largely unknown. In this study, we determined mitochondrial DNA sequences in multiple clones derived from bone samples... [continue reading]
Article

Minoan Aqueducts: A Pioneering Technology

by A.N. Angelakis, Y.M. Savvakis and G. Charalampakis
published on 31 January 2012
In this paper several archaeological, historical and other aspects of aqueducts in Minoan era are reviewed. During the Middle Bronze Age a “cultural explosion”, unparalleled in the history of other ancient civilizations, occurred on the island of Crete. One of the salient characteristics of that cultural development was the architectural... [continue reading]
Article
This dissertation applies the principles of fiscal dissertation to the study of the Roman Republic. I argue that the creation of a profitable empire allowed the ruling elite to end their reliance on domestic taxation to fund state activity, and that Rome’s untaxed citizens were effectively disenfranchised as a result. They therefore lacked the bargaining... [continue reading]
Article

Romanizing Baal: the art of Saturn worship in North Africa

by Wilson, Andrew. I.
published on 14 February 2012
This paper is concerned with stelai from North Africa dedicated to Baal / Saturn in fulfilment of a religious vow, and examines the development of their iconography as the region was incorporated into the Roman empire. The monuments in question range in date from the second century B. C. until the fourth century A.D., and are found throughout modern Tunisia... [continue reading]
Article

Ancient Greek Yarn-Making

by Kissell, Mary Lois
published on 14 February 2012
The Metropolitan Museum is fortunate in having among its Greek collections three antique ceramics of exceptional interest, since they tell in a graphic way something of textile art in Europe’s oldest nation, several centuries before Christ. As research brings to light more of Greek life and customs, we find a distinctive charm in their humbler crafts... [continue reading]
Article

The Two Orients for Greek Writers

by Takuji Abe
published on 22 February 2012
India was subdued by Darius I and incorporated into the vast Persian Empire at the end of the sixth century. This conquest stimulated the interest of Greeks living in Persian Asia Minor, such as Scylax, Hecataeus, Herodotus and Ctesias, whose accounts of India are known to us. The aim of this paper is to examine those accounts, and bring forward the authors&rsquo... [continue reading]
Article

Lucretia: An Ancient Example of Honor

by Aubrey Hanson
published on 27 February 2012
The Roman historian, Livy, wrote a comprehensive history of Rome during the reign of Augustus. The work, Ab Urbe Condita, spanned from the time of Aeneas, preceding the founding of the city by Romulus, until the reign of Augustus. In ancient times, Livy’s work was immediately praised and used as an authoritative text on the history of Rome, and... [continue reading]
Article

Blended Cuisine in Ancient Rome

by Charles Feldman
published on 27 February 2012
They [fundamental elements] prevail in turn as the cycle moves round, and decrease into each other and increase in appointed succession. For these are the only real things, and as they run through one another they become men and the kinds of other animals, at one time coming into one order through love, at another again being borne away from each... [continue reading]
Article

Play and childhood in ancient Greece

by Eliseo Andreu Cabrera, Mar Cepero, Fco. Javier Rojas, Juan J Chinchilla-Mira
published on 05 March 2012
The traditional games of children are the maximum exponent of a people’s culture of play, and though these games are sometimes derived from adult ceremonies, in spirit they belong to the world of children. Most authors assume that games depend on biological, cultural and psychological influences; they are considered a typical anthropological phenomenon... [continue reading]
Article

The Roman bridge-builder: some aspects of his work

by N. A. F. Smith
published on 05 March 2012
To judge from the literature on Roman engineering, there was a time when the history of bridge building was a prominent theme closely associated with a parallel and equally well-developed interest in Roman roads. Recently, as a result of a variety of new approaches to archaeological, technical and social themes, the emphasis has moved to aspects of hydraulic... [continue reading]
Article

The Eleusinian Mysteries and the Bee

by Julie Sanchez-Parodi
published on 05 March 2012
The fifth century BCE Greek historian Herodotus relates the importance of bees in ancient Greece, pointing out that the honey of neighboring countries was made using fruit, while the honey of the Greeks was produced by bees. The significance of this difference lies in that, to the Greeks of that time period, bees were considered to be divine insects... [continue reading]
Article

Coin hoards speak of population declines in Ancient Rome

by Peter Turchin and Walter Scheidel
published on 06 March 2012
In times of violence, people tend to hide their valuables, which are later recovered unless the owners had been killed or driven away. Thus, the temporal distribution of unrecovered coin hoards is an excellent proxy for the intensity of internal warfare. We use this relationship to resolve a long-standing controversy in Roman history. Depending on who... [continue reading]
Article
Hannibal Barca, general of Carthage during the 2d Punic War with Rome, 218-202 BC, has few peers in the annals of military history. He invaded the homeland of his enemy and remained there, undefeated, for fifteen years. He soundly defeated every Roman army that dared to risk battle with him while in Italy. The military historian Trevor N. Dupuy named Hannibal... [continue reading]
Article
How prosperous were the Romans? Their individual experiences ranged from wretched poverty to fabulous wealth, and that variety makes generalizations difficult. Many kinds of evidence can be used to address this question. Three approaches to the problem are particularly direct and encompassing. The first approach is to calculate the average income. This... [continue reading]
Article

Surgery in the Aegean Bronze Age

by Robert Arnott
published on 19 March 2012
Recently Vivian Nutton wrote that “… for our knowledge of Greek medicine and its physicians before the late fifth century BC, we are largely at the mercy of a combination of later legend and modern plausible speculation, and neither can be trusted entirely”. This work attempts to remove some of this speculation, and look at what... [continue reading]
Article

Social status of elite women of the new kingdom of ancient Egypt

by Olivier, Anette
published on 19 April 2012
Representational artistic works were researched as visual evidence for the social, political, religious and economic lifestyles of the ancient Egyptian elite. The aims were to comprehend the status of elite women and to challenge the hypothesis that during the New Kingdom they enjoyed an increased social status in comparison to that of their predecessors... [continue reading]
Article

Cashless Payment in Ancient Mesopotamia (626-331 BC)

by António Ramos dos Santos
published on 20 March 2012
This study is based on the analysis of texts coming from several dispersed archives and collections referring to the activity pursued by private families in Mesopotamia during the Neo-Babylonian and Achaemenid Periods. We chose to classify the documents according to types, taking for granted that documents referring to «goods» and “currency»... [continue reading]
Article

Ancient Egyptian Humor

by Amr Kamel
published on 19 April 2012
Humor is everywhere in the ancient world, not only in comedies proper, but in almost every type of art and literary genre as well. Laughter is often considered the response to humor, but can result from many different stimuli, as is demonstrated by the irony caricature and the animal stories. Ancient Egyptian civilization lasted more than three thousand... [continue reading]
Article

Ancient Blacksmiths, The Iron Age, Damascus Steels, And Modern Metallurgy

by Oleg D. Sherby and Jeffrey Wadsworth
published on 19 April 2012
The history of iron and Damascus steels is described through the eyes of ancient blacksmiths. For example, evidence is presented that questions why the Iron Age could not have begun at about the same time as the early Bronze Age (i.e. approximately 7000 B.C.). It is also clear that ancient blacksmiths had enough information from their forging work, together... [continue reading]
Article

The building stones of ancient Egypt - a gift of its geology

by Dietrich D. Klemm and Rosemarie Klemm
published on 19 April 2012
Building stones and clay-rich Nile mud were ancient Egypt’s main raw construction materials. While the mud was easily accessible along the Nile river valley, the immense quantities of the different stone materials used for construction of the famous pyramids, precious temples and tombs needed a systematic quarrying organization, well arranged transport... [continue reading]
Article
According to Margaret Cool Root, a leading scholar on the ancient Near East, the royal art of the Achaemenid kings reflects the ideals and attitudes of the king and his courtiers, presenting, above all, an ideal view of the nature of Persian kingship. Root argues that the variegated origins and appropriated concepts of Achaemenid iconography, from the Egyptian... [continue reading]
Article

A Study on the End of The Universe in The Light of Ancient Egyptian Texts

by ElSebaie, Sherine M.
published on 19 April 2012
The subject of this thesis is a theme that has not been fully studied until today and that has long been thought to be overlooked by the ancient Egyptians in a negative way. The aim of this thesis is then to look carefully into the texts dealing with this theme to reveal how exactly the ancient Egyptians felt about it. The texts scrutinized are divided according... [continue reading]
Article

Stonehenge and its people: thoughts from medicine

by Anthony M. Perks
published on 04 June 2012
This paper considers the nature of Stonehenge and other Neolithic sites from an unusual perspective, that of medicine. At Stonehenge, the finish and pattern of the stones suggest that the trilithons represent the parents of the past, while the overall layout symbolizes Earth Mother, the Mother Goddess. Concern for this deity probably reflects the enormous... [continue reading]
Article

Roman Slavery: A Study of Roman Society and Its Dependence on Slaves

by Andrew Mason Burks
published on 23 April 2012
Rome’s dependence upon slaves has been well established in terms of economics and general society. This paper, however, seeks to demonstrate this dependence, during the end of the Republic and the beginning of the Empire, through detailed examples of slave use in various areas of Roman life. The areas covered include agriculture, industry, domestic... [continue reading]
Article
This dissertation discusses Roman imperialism and runic literacy. It employs an interdisciplinary terminology. By means of terms new to archaeology, the growth of a specialized language, a technolect, is traced until it enters the realm of literacy. The author argues that there is more than one way for literacy to appear in prehistoric cultures. The ’normal&rsquo... [continue reading]
Article

Horace’s attitude toward Roman civil war and foreign war

by Robert L Frieman
published on 19 April 2012
One of Horace’s noblest odes, III.2, proclaims the undying glory to be won in war (17-24). It is sweet and fitting to die for one’s fatherland, he declares. Death will overtake the coward anyway (14-16); one must seize the opportunity to die in a manner that will win him lasting fame. Yet this same poet also wrote—without any apparent embarrassment—that... [continue reading]
Article
This overview examines the impact of horsepower on Old World society over the last 6,000 years. Analysis of man’s symbiosis with the domesticated horse necessarily takes the reader to regions remote from urban centers and pays special attention to mobile elements of nomadic society, too often deemed marginal or transitory. The discussion first grapples... [continue reading]
Article
This paper attempts to redefine the role of the “hero” in ancient Western epic poetry, focusing specifically on the Iliad of Homer and the Irish epic the Tain Bo Cuailgne, by focusing on the maintenance of a hierarchy of loyalties. Similarly, this paper demonstrates the need to expand the traditional conception of the epic seductress. Ultimately... [continue reading]
Article

The concept of law and justice in ancient Egypt

by Nicolaas Johannes Van Blerk
published on 21 November 2011
This thesis discusses the interaction between the concepts of ”justice” (ma’at) and ”law” (hpw) in ancient Egypt. Ma’at, one of the earliest abstract terms in human speech, was a central principle and, although no codex of Egyptian law has been found, there is abundant evidence of written law, designed to realise ma’at... [continue reading]
Article

Caesar or Rex?

by Casey M. Simpson
published on 13 June 2012
In the last two years of his life Julius Caesar held absolute power in Rome and he was a monarch in everything except name. Was this, however, his objective since the beginning of his political career? Some authors, both modem and ancient have contended that Caesar always had a desire for absolute power and he always worked toward achieving that singular... [continue reading]
Video

Assyrian Palace Reliefs (82nd & Fifth)

by The Metropolitan Museum of Art
published on 03 April 2014
http://82nd-and-fifth.metmuseum.org/hyperreality Explore this object: http://82nd-and-fifth.metmuseum.org/relief-panel-assyrian-32.143.4 "That infinite image creates an endless echoing, which is almost dizzying and supernatural." 82nd & Fifth invites 100 curators from across the Museum to talk about 100 works of art that changed the way they see the world.
Article
In a favourite mythological motif of the Greeks, the Amazons fought many of the most celebrated Greek heroes and lived in independent societies on the fringes of the known world. These warrior women appear throughout Greek literature and art of every kind, defined by characteristics which differentiated them from ‘ordinary’ women: heroic capability... [continue reading]
Article

Army and Police in Roman Upper Egypt

by Bagnall, Roger S.
published on 04 June 2012
Life in rural areas in antiquity was hazardous to person and property. As one moved away from the centres of population, the risk of being robbed, assaulted or killed increased. Both travellers and country residents were constantly beset by these problems. The extent and nature of the lawlessness in any area, depended in part of the degree to which... [continue reading]
Article

Hallmarks in the History of Epilepsy: From Antiquity Till the Twentieth Century

by Emmanouil Magiorkinis, Kalliopi Sidiropoulou and Aristidis Diamantis
published on 04 June 2012
The history of epilepsy is intervened with the history of humanity. One of the first descriptions of epileptic seizures can be traced back to 2,000 B.C. in ancient Akkadian texts, a language widely used in the region of Mesopotamia. The author described a patient with symptoms resembling epilepsy: his neck turns left, his hands and feet are tense... [continue reading]
Article
One cannot deny that the outcomes of historical research are to some extent a reflection of the researcher’s perceptions of historical events. When one deals with a topic such as “the role of women in antiquity,” which gained eminence in feminist literature in the 1970s, this is all the more true. Thus, although the sources and the interpretation... [continue reading]
Article
This thesis examines the cultural and social relationships cultivated by ethnically diverse auxiliary soldiers in the western Roman empire. These soldiers were enrolled in the Roman auxilia, military units that drew primarily on the non-Roman subjects of the empire for their recruits in numbers that equaled the legionaries. I argue that auxiliary soldiers... [continue reading]
Article

Rhetoric of Myth, Magic, and Conversion: Ancient Irish Rhetoric

by Richard Johnson-Sheehan and Paul Lynch
published on 19 March 2012
Ancient Ireland presents an interesting case for rhetorical study. While the island is usually considered a part of geographic Europe, it long resisted the influence of cultural Europe. Unlike Britain, for example, Ireland was never conquered by Rome, and its pre-literate culture flourished beyond the fall of the Empire. Consequently, the Irish maintained... [continue reading]
Article

The Representation of Alexander in the Histories of Polybius and Livy

by Nikolaus Leo Overtoom
published on 18 July 2012
By investigating the works of Polybius and Livy, we can discuss an important aspect of the impact of Alexander upon the reputation and image of Rome. Because of the subject of their histories and the political atmosphere in which they were writing – these authors, despite their generally positive opinions of Alexander, ultimately created scenarios... [continue reading]
Article

How Archaic Greek Colonization Developed and What Forms it Took

by Alfonso Mele
published on 21 July 2012
A lively debate has developed in recent years around the nature and development of archaic Greek colonisation. This debate tends to prove that the model based on the oecist–metropolis–date of foundation relation that has been passed on to us through the ancient tradition in fact results from a later normalisation process, which did not occur... [continue reading]
Article
Within the field of extant Greek historical writing on the subject of the Assyrian and Babylonian kingdoms the fragments of Berossus’ History of Babylonia, written by a so-called “Chaldean” priest, but addressed to a Greek-speaking audience, deserve our special attention. How could Berossus’ account correspond to the legendary... [continue reading]
Article

Depictions of Isis throughout the Ancient Mediterranean World

by Mair, Melissa
published on 25 July 2012
The cult of the goddess Isis spread from Egypt out to Greece and Rome, where Isis became one of the most celebrated goddesses in the Ancient Mediterranean world. Her worship spanned an impressive time period from around the third millennium BCE up until the fourth century CE. Over time, as Isis was encountered by different cultures, her identity... [continue reading]
Article

Roman Cartography to the End of the Augustan Era

by A. W. Dilke
published on 21 August 2012
Whereas the Greeks, particularly in Ionia in the early period and at Alexandria in the Hellenistic age, made unparalleled strides in the theory of cosmology and geography, the Romans were concerned with practical applications. This contrast is sometimes exaggerated, yet it can hardly be avoided as a generalization when seeking to understand the overall... [continue reading]
Article

Divided We Fall: The Roots of the Great Jewish Revolt against Rome

by Eisenberg, Robert
published on 17 September 2012
During the Roman occupation of Judea, lasting from 6-638 CE, the well-being of the Jewish population was hardly guaranteed. For the early part of this period, the Judean Jews were given a large degree of autonomy over their own affairs, and Rome allowed them considerable religious free- dom. However, between 66-73 CE (and again in 132-135 CE), the province... [continue reading]
Article

Amphitheatres of Roman Britain: a study of their classes, architecture and uses

by Véronique Deniger
published on 17 September 2012
This thesis is a study of the classes, architecture and uses of Romano-British amphitheatres. Such a study is useful in providing an understanding of the architectural characteristics of Romano-British amphitheatres, the manner in which they differed from and resembled those in other parts of the Empire and of the types of activities for which they were... [continue reading]
Article

What the Roman emperor Tiberius grew in his greenhouses

by H.S. Paris and J. Janick
published on 17 September 2012
A number of cucurbits are mentioned and described in Mediterranean writings of the first and second centuries CE, including Dioscorides’ De Materia Medica, Columella’s De Re Rustica, Pliny’s Historia Naturalis, and the codices of Jewish law known as the Mishna and Tosefta. Images of cucurbits from the same region predating, contemporary... [continue reading]
Article

The Status Of Women In Ancient Athens

by O’ Neal, William J. (Department of Classics and History, University of Toledo)
published on 18 September 2012
The roles of Athenian women in the fifth century B.C. were primarily those of wife and mother. The Athenians, in their patriarchal society, selected models for women based on the divine and heroic orders. The divine order subjected the female duties to their male counterparts. The heroic order depicted Penelope as the absolute role model for Greek-Athenian... [continue reading]
Article
In chapter 18 of  Hellenistic Egypt (2007, pp. 240-253), Jean Bingen discusses the cultural interactions between the native population of Egypt and its ruling minority of Greek-Macedonians and come to the conclusion that there is not much mutual acculturation between the two. The specific aspect of society and this proposed cultural dualism of Ptolemaic... [continue reading]
Article
This paper stresses the importance of distinguishing between different categories of children in order to better understand their changing lives and their shifting relations with the adult world. The example is taken from the Mesolithic burial/settlement site of Skateholm at the southernmost coast of Sweden. By contrasting grave content and spatial arrangement... [continue reading]
Article

Forests and Warfare in World History

by J.R. McNeill
published on 06 December 2012
For better and for worse, both woods and warfare are fundamental factors in human life, and have been for a very long time. Humankind evolved in park like savannas of East Africa, from hominid ancestors who had lived in forests. We, and they, have used woodlands, and to some extent have been shaped by woodland environments, for millions of years. Warfare... [continue reading]
Article

The Mandrake and the Ancient World

by R.K. Harrison
published on 12 January 2013
The mandrake is one of the plants which still grows widely in the Middle East, and which has claimed magical associations from a very remote period. It is generally assigned the botanical name of Mandragora officinarum L.. and is a perennial of the order Solanaceae. It claims affinity with the potato and eggplant, and is closely allied to the Atropa belladonna... [continue reading]
Article
Few occurrences in antiquity are as widely discussed by a diverse, ancient authorship as transcontinental commerce between the Mediterranean Sea and East Asia. Yet modern historians remain profoundly divided over long-distance trade’s origin, operation and effect with regard to the governance of the Roman Principate. There is broad consensus, however... [continue reading]
Article

Mythology and the Origin of Law in Early Chinese Thought

by Geoffrey MacCormack
published on 02 January 2013
Did the Chinese attribute a secular or a religious origin to law? One influential view has strongly asserted the secular origin. Recently, some scholars have mounted a strong challenge, arguing that this view has overlooked or distorted a vital fragment of evidence that, in their opinion, shows conclusively that law had a religious origin. Before the... [continue reading]
Article

The Queen of Sheba: A Queen of Egypt and Ethiopia?

by Elliott A. Green
published on 08 January 2013
Josephus clearly identifies the queen who visited Solomon as “the woman who ruled Egypt and Ethiopia,” and tells us that her name was Nikaulis. Yet the Bible calls her the Queen of Sheba (I Kg. 10; II Chr. 9). However, elsewhere in Josephus’ Antiquities, he identifies Saba (Sheba) as the Ethiopian capital. He writes “Saba, that... [continue reading]
Article

Cultural Exchange in Roman Society: Freed Slaves and Social Values

by Rose B. MacLean
published on 12 January 2013
Although slavery was a widely accepted practice throughout the ancient Mediterranean, the Roman system was distinctive for its high rates of manumission and grant of citizenship to slaves manumitted through official channels. This dissertation sheds new light on the role of ex-slaves in Roman society by examining the cultural exchange that took place between... [continue reading]
Article

Tinker, tailor, soldier, sailor: Minoans and Mycenaeans abroad

by Eric H. Cline
published on 17 January 2013
In 1984, exactly ten years ago, at a conference in Athens on the ‘Function of the Minoan Palaces’, several participants in a general discussion on economy and trade brought up the possibility of Minoan artists working overseas. Peter Warren later went on to discuss the existence of Minoan merchants abroad, but few of the other participants pursued... [continue reading]
Video

Perils of Empire & Teutoburg Forest

by thecreativeassembly
published on 26 March 2014
Blending commentary from noted historians with footage created using the Total War: ROME II engine, this documentary short takes a close look at one of the most devastating defeats the Roman Empire ever faced. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest saw three full legions of Rome utterly destroyed; it shook the empire to its very foundations, and offered Rome... [continue reading]
Article
The thesis focuses on the socio-cultural interaction between Gallo-Romans and barbarians in fifth century Gaul. Its aim is to investigate how both Romans and barbarians, particularly the Gothic people, shared a common living space within imperial territory, how this space was created, and to which extent both sides assimilated with each other in terms... [continue reading]
Image

Theodora I

by The Yorck Project
published on 06 September 2013
Theodora: Detail from the 6th-century mosaic "Empress Theodora and Her Court" in the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna.
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Map of the Frankish Kingdoms AD 511

by Peter Kessler
published on 14 August 2013
The founder of the Merovingian Frankish kingdom was Clovis. He followed an aggressive policy of conquest to build up the kingdom over much of modern France, but his death in 511 saw his realm chopped up into several smaller kingdoms. It was Frankish custom to divide territory between surviving sons, a practise known as partible inheritance, and the event... [continue reading]
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Map of the Frankish Kingdoms AD 481-511

by Peter Kessler
published on 14 August 2013
With the accession of Clovis, son of Childeric I of the Salian Franks, the Germanic occupiers of north-eastern Gaul had found a king who would change their fortunes out of all recognition. Rather than follow his father's policy of allying himself with the Roman domain of Soissons and trying to preserve some kind of peace in Gaul, Clovis pursued a highly aggressive... [continue reading]
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Messalina Holding Britannicus

by Ricardo André Frantz (Photographer)
published on 16 July 2013
Messalina holding Britannicus, Marble, ca. 45 AD. Inspired by Cephisodotos' renowned sculpture, Eirene bearing the child Ploutos. Louvre Museum, Department of Greek, Etruscan and Roman antiquities, Denon, ground floor, room 24.
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"Whore Empress" Sculpture of Valeria Messalina

by Caroline Léna Becker (Photographer)
published on 16 July 2013
Modern marble sculpture (1884 CE) depicting Valeria Messalina, by Eugène Cyrille Brunet (1828–1921). Museum of Fine Arts, Rennes.
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Map of Sumer

by P L Kessler
published on 11 July 2013
The area which formed Sumer started at the Persian Gulf and reached north to the 'neck' of Mesopotamia where the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates meander much closer to each other. To the east loomed the Zagros Mountains, where scattered city states thrived on trade and learning from Sumer, and to the west was the vast expanse of the Arabian desert... [continue reading]
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Map of Etruscan and Greek influence in Italy

by P L Kessler
published on 11 July 2013
This map shows the greatest extent of Etruscan influence in Italy, during the seventh to fifth centuries BC, including the Campania region to the south.
Image

Naval Landing

by The Creative Assembly
published on 28 June 2013
This is an artistic 3D impression of how a Roman naval landing may have looked in ancient times.
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Spartan Warriors

by The Creative Assembly
published on 17 May 2013
This is a 3d representation of how Spartan warriors in action might have looked. Armoured warriors equipped with shield and spear, known as Hoplites, were typical of ancient Greek warfare.
Image

Roman Victory Procession

by The Creative Assembly
published on 14 May 2013
Artist's impression of a victory procession. This 3D render nicely displays how Roman soldiers have looked, and how their victories were celebrated.
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Carthage and its Harbour

by The Creative Assembly
published on 14 May 2013
This is a 3D rendition of what Carthage might have looked like at the height of its power. In the foreground you can see the Cothon, the city's famous military harbour.
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Trireme Ramming

by The Creative Assembly
published on 14 May 2013
This is a 3D rendition of how a Trireme ramming another ship in classical sea battles may have looked.
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Territorial Expansion of the Sasanian Empire

by Dcoetzee
published on 07 May 2013
This map shows the territorial expansion of the Sasanian Empire from 226 to 651 CE.
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Senmurv

by Shaahin
published on 07 May 2013
Simorgh or Senmurv, the Sassanian Royal Symbol and the Mythology of Persia.
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The Intervention of the Sabine Women

by Jacques-Louis David
published on 25 March 2013
Painting by Jacques-Louis David (1748–1825), oil on canvas, 1799. On display at the Louvre Museum, Paris, France. The Abduction (or Rape) of the Sabine Women is an episode in the legendary history of Rome, traditionally said to have taken place in 750 BC, in which the first generation of Roman men acquired wives for themselves from the neighboring Sabine... [continue reading]
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Roman Army Reenactment

by Hans Splinter
published on 19 March 2013
Romans in Archeon; to the left Legio II Augusta, to the right Legio XXX Ulpia Victrix.
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Half-figure tombstone of Gaius Largennius

by Mike Bishop
published on 19 March 2013
Half-figure tombstone of Gaius Largennius of legio II Augusta from Strasbourg. General view of half-figure relief. Inv. Nr. 2431; Éspérandieu 5495 H: 1.48m; W: 0.655m; Th: 0.21m
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Legio II Augusta Plaque

by Chatsam
published on 19 March 2013
Modern plaque showing the Capricornus emblem of the II Augusta.
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Mandrake

by Onderwijsgek
published on 12 January 2013
Mandrake (Mandragora officinarum), scanned from 15th century manuscript Tacuinum Sanitatis.
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Palmyra

by Bernard Gagnon
published on 19 December 2012
View of Palmyra with the Temple of Bel, Syria. Palmyra (Aramaic: ܬܕܡܘܪܬܐ‎;Hebrew: תדמור; tiḏmor, Greek: Παλμύρα, Arabic: تدمر‎; Tadmur, /ˌpælˈmaɪərə/) was an ancient city in central Syria. In antiquity, it was an important city located in an oasis 215 km northeast of Damascus and 180 km southwest of the Euphrates at Deir... [continue reading]
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Palmyra Castle

by djtomic
published on 19 December 2012
Photo of Palmyra's 13th century CE Mamluk castle with ancient ruins in the foreground.
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Autumn Forest

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 06 December 2012
Photo of the Bükk Hills (Hungary) in autumn.
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Apedemak Temple

by Zamani Project
published on 19 September 2012
Lion Temple to the Nubian deity Apedemak in Musawwarat (modern-day Sudan). Apedemak was worshipped in Nubia by Meroitic peoples, and Musawwarat appears to have been its central temple. The deity had only a small influence on the Egyptian pantheon. 3D reconstruction courtesy of the Zamani Project.
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Jason brings Pelias the Golden Fleece

by Marie-Lan Nguyen
published on 21 July 2012
Jason bringing Pelias the Golden Fleece; a winged victory prepares to crown him with a wreath. Side A from an Apulian red-figure calyx crater, 340 BC–330 BCE. On display at the Louvre Museum, Paris, France (Department of Greek, Etruscan and Roman Antiquities, Sully wing, room 44, Accession number K 127). H. 45.7 cm (17 ¾ in.), Diam. 39.6 cm (15 ½ in.), W. 29.4 cm (11 ½ in.)
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Tiberius

by Cnyborg
published on 19 July 2012
Portrait of Roman Emperor Tiberius (reigned 18 September 14 CE – 16 March 37 CE) in Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen.
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Statue of Hades and Cerberus

by Aviad Bublil
published on 19 July 2012
Statue of Hades and Cerberus, his dog. On display at the Archaeological Museum of Crete.
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Mounichia Harbour

by Zea Harbour Project
published on 10 July 2012
Artist's impression of Mounichia naval harbour near Athens. Republished with Permission from Zea Harbour Project
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Greek Trireme Shipsheds

by Zea Harbour Project
published on 10 July 2012
3D reconstruction of the shipsheds for the Athenian navy at Zea Harbour. Republished with permission from the Zea Harbour Project.
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Map of Bronze Age Akrotiri

by Maximilian Dörrbecker
published on 07 July 2012
Map of Akrotiri in the Bronze Age, ca. 1600 BC.
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Ship Procession Fresco, Akrotiri

by smial
published on 07 July 2012
Bronze Age fresco of a ship procession from Akrotiri on the Aegean island of Thera (modern-day Santorini). From Room 5 of the West House, c. 2000-1500 BCE. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)
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Ruins of Thera

by danoots
published on 07 July 2012
A photo of the ruins of Thera (Akrotiri) on Santorini, Greece.
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Ruins of Archaic Thera

by Thomas Huston
published on 07 July 2012
The ruins of Archaic Thera on Santorini, Greece.
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Lion Relief from Thera

by damiandude
published on 07 July 2012
A lion relief from the ruins of the ancient Bronze Age city of Thera on Santorini, Greece.
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Map of the British Isles in AD 43

by P L Kessler
published on 06 July 2012
On the eve of the Roman Conquest, the south-east was dominated completely by the Catuvellauni. They, if any, could claim the legendary High Kingship of Britain. As well as having conquered the Cantiaci, the Trinovantes, and the Atrebates and their subsidiary branch, the Belgae (the Regninses may not have borne a separate identity until after the Conquest... [continue reading]
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Map of the British Isles in AD 10

by P L Kessler
published on 06 July 2012
Rome maintained trading and political links of a sort with the Britons, and were able to observe the slow coalescence of the south-east towards the creation of a unified kingdom. The Catuvellauni, who had already proved themselves to be national leaders in times of external threat, were starting to make their presence felt far and wide. By about AD... [continue reading]
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Map of the British Isles in 54 BC

by P L Kessler
published on 06 July 2012
When Julius Caesar landed on the Kent coast in 55 BC, he had a basic knowledge of what to expect of the south-eastern Britons from his dealings with their close relatives on the Continent. What he wasn't prepared for was the English Channel, and some bad weather almost cost him dear. His expedition doesn't seem to have made it out of Kent's borders on... [continue reading]
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Model of the Ishtar Gate

by Gryffindor
published on 03 July 2012
A model of the Ishtar Gate built in c. 575 BCE by Nebuchadnezzar II in Babylon, displayed at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin.
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Tikal

by szeke
published on 06 July 2012
The ruins of the Maya city of Tikal in what is now northern Guatemala.
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Dragon of the Ishtar Gate

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 03 July 2012
A Babylonian mušḫuššu dragon from the Ishtar gate, made of glazed tiles. The Ishtar Gate was constructed by Nebuchadnezzar II in about 575 BC. Displayed in the Istanbul Archaeological Museums, Turkey.
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Roman Emperor Nero

by cjh1452000
published on 29 June 2012
Bust of Nero at the Capitoline Museum, Rome.
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A Christian Dirce

by Franciszek Stolot
published on 29 June 2012
Painting from 1897 by Henryk Siemiradzki (1843–1902), depicting Nero watching how a captive Christian woman is killed in a re-enactment of the Greek myth of Dirce.
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Lion of Babylon

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 28 June 2012
Detail of a lion found along the processional way from Ishtar Gate into the city of Babylon. The Ishtar Gate was constructed around 575 BC by King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon, made of fired bricks and decorated with animals made in glazed bricks.
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Hermes Ludovesi

by Marie-Lan Nguyen
published on 24 June 2012
Roman marble copy from the late 1st century CE-early 2nd century CE after a Greek original of 450-440 BCE (right hand restored). Possibly here as Hermes Psychopompos, leader of souls - the left hand beckons. Part of a monument in Athens to the fallen at Koroneia (447 BCE). Also known as Hermes Logios.
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The Birth of Venus

by Sandro Botticelli
published on 24 June 2012
By Sandro Botticelli (1445–1510), commissioned by Lorenzo and Giovanni di Pierfrancesco de'Medici for Villa di Castello (?).
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The Birth of Venus

by William-Adolphe Bouguereau
published on 24 June 2012
The Birth of Venus (1879 CE) by William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1825–1905 CE). Musée d'Orsay, Paris.
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Aphrodite

by Marsyas
published on 24 June 2012
Copy after Praxiteles. Aphrodite of the Syracuse type. Parian marble, Roman copy of the 2nd century CE after a Greek original of the 4th century BCE; neck, head and left arm are restorations by Antonio Canova. Found at Baiae, Southern Italy. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Department of Sculptures, no. 3524. Former Hope Collection; gift by M. Embeirikos, 1924.
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Bronze Age Women

by Hans Splinter
published on 16 May 2012
Modern re-enactment of Bronze Age life.
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Rök Runestone

by Bengt Olof ÅRADSSON
published on 18 May 2012
An inscription using cipher runes, the Elder Futhark, and the Younger Futhark, on the 9th-century Rök Runestone in Sweden.
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Artemis / Diana

by Timothy Tolle
published on 29 May 2012
Statue of Artemis (Greek) or Diana (Roman), known as Diane de Versailles, France. Roman copy, 1st or 2nd century CE, of lost Greek bronze attributed to Leochares, c. 325 BCE. Musee du Louvre, Paris.
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The Gold Cone of Ezelsdorf-Buch is a tall (88 cm), cone-shaped object made of thin sheet gold, it is seen as belonging to a group of artifacts referred to as Bronze Age Golden hats. It was presumably worn by special functionaries on ceremonial occasions. It is one of four such known items. Three of them were discovered in Southern Germany, and one in... [continue reading]
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Urartian Cuneiform

by EvgenyGenkin
published on 14 May 2012
Urartian cuneiform inscription on the left of the temple door at Erebuni Fortress.
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Urartian Wall Paintings

by D-man
published on 14 May 2012
Modern reproductions of the ancient wall-paintings at Erebuni Fortress.
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Ogham Script: Consonants

by Rico38
published on 11 May 2012
The consonants of the ogham alphabet (non-IPA).
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Oxus River

by Shannon1
published on 11 May 2012
Map of the Oxus' / Amu Darya's watershed in Central Asia, that drains parts of modern-day Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan into the Aral Sea.
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Ogham Script: Vowels

by Rico38
published on 11 May 2012
The vowels of the ogham alphabet (non-IPA). Note: This is the vertical writing of ogham. In the horizontal form, the right side would face downward.
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Ogham Stone

by Jessica Spengler
published on 11 May 2012
Ogham writing on standing stone, seen on the right-hand side of the picture.
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The Book of Ballymote

by Dbachmann
published on 11 May 2012
fol. 170r of the Book of Ballymote (AD 1390), part of the Auraicept na n-Éces, explaining the Ogham script. the page shows varianst of Ogham, nrs. 43 to 77 of 92 in total, including shield ogham (nr. 73).
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Torah

by Horsch, Willy
published on 10 May 2012
Sefer Torah at old Glockengasse Synagogue (reconstruction), Cologne.
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Alexander the Great in Combat

by Warner Brothers
published on 30 April 2012
An artistic impression of Alexander the Great in combat (played by Colin Farrell), from the motion picture Alexander (2004), directed by Oliver Stone.
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Hephaistos / Vulcan

by Jastrow (2006)
published on 13 June 2012
Vulcan. Marble, reception piece for the French Royal Academy, 1742. Guillaume II Coustou (1716-1777). Louvre Museum, Department of Sculptures, Richelieu, ground floor, room 25.
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Rachel Weisz as Hypatia of Alexandria

by Focus Features, Newmarket Films, Telecinco Cinema
published on 20 April 2012
Hypatia of Alexandria, played by Rachel Weisz in the motion picture Agora (2009).
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Poverty Point

by Maximilian Dörrbecker
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the Poverty Point archaeological site, Louisiana.
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Alexander The Great and Roxane

by Pietro Antonio Rotari
published on 26 April 2012
Alexander The Great and Roxane (1756) by Pietro Antonio Rotari (1707–1762). Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
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Map of Ancient Egypt

by Tho. Stackhouse
published on 26 April 2012
Celarius, 1742.
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Citadel of Aleppo

by Memorino
published on 08 June 2012
The Citadel of Aleppo (Arabic: قلعة حلب‎) is a large medieval fortified palace in the centre of the old city of Aleppo, northern Syria. It is considered to be one of the oldest and largest castles in the world. Usage of the Citadel hill dates back at least to the middle of the 3rd millennium BC. Subsequently occupied by many civilizations including... [continue reading]
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Ptolemy I Soter

by Marie-Lan Nguyen
published on 03 February 2012
Bust of Ptolemy I Soter, king of Egypt (305 BC–282 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. The identification is based upon coin effigies.
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Map of Roman Africa

by H.Kiepert
published on 26 April 2012
Nothern Africa under Roman rule. From H.Kiepert (1879), Historischer Schulatlas.
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Map of the Third Intermediate Period

by Jeff Dahl
published on 26 April 2012
A map showing the political divisions in ancient Egypt during the Third intermediate Period, about 730 BC. The rulers of the 22nd and 23rd Dynasties ruled simultaneously, alongside Libyan chieftains controlling most of the Delta.
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Map of the Trojan War States, c. 1200 BCE

by P L Kessler
published on 26 April 2012
The Bronze Age collapse at the end of the 13th century BCE saw a great many changes in the ancient world. Many second millennium states disappeared entirely, as cities were destroyed and peoples migrated. Others underwent a process of transformation which effectively turned them into new states, and some regions in western and central Anatolia remained abandoned... [continue reading]
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The Rams of Amon

by Dreef
published on 26 April 2012
Ram-headed sphinxes deposited in the first court in Temple of Karnak, Egypt. Before the temple was extended by the construction of the first cour and its pylon, these sphinxes were part of the original approach. When the approach avenue was shorted, under the 22nd Dynasty, the surplus sphinxes were deposited in the newly built court. The ram of Amon, shown... [continue reading]
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Egyptian Royal Woman

by bstorage
published on 26 April 2012
An Egyptian Royal Woman, probably of the 18th Dynasty, possibly Nefertiti.
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Library of Celsus

by greenp
published on 26 April 2012
The Library of Celsus in Ephesos (completed 117 AD), with a statue of Arete in the foreground.
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Map of Mesopotamia, 2000-1600 BC

by P L Kessler
published on 26 April 2012
A general map of Mesopotamia and its neighbouring territories which roughly covers the period from 2000-1600 BC reveals the concentration of city states in Sumer, in the south. This is where the first true city states arose, although the cities of northern Mesopotamia and Syria were roughly contemporaneous. However, the latter remained relatively minor states... [continue reading]
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Avenue of the Sphinxes, Thebes

by sdhaddow
published on 26 April 2012
The Avenue of the Sphinxes is a 3km ancient processional route that once linked Luxor temple with the Temple of Mut at Karnak to the south. The avenue and sphinxes were built during the reign of Nectanebo I (380-363 BC) who ruled during the 30th Dynasty. Each of the approximately 1350 sphinxes which originally lined the route are inscribed with his name.
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Map of the Successor Kingdoms, c. 303 BCE

by Javierfv1212
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the Diadochi successor kingdoms to Alexander the Great's empire, before the Battle of Ipsus (301 BCE).
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Foundation figure of Ur-Nammu

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 09 January 2012
From Uruk, southern Iraq Third Dynasty of Ur, about 2100-2000 BC. The king as a temple builder with a basket of earth to make bricks. This bronze figure represents Ur-Nammu, the ruler of Ur (about 2112-2095 BC). It was made for burial in the foundations of a temple of Uruk. It was one of the duties of a Mesopotamian king to care for the gods and restore... [continue reading]
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Early writing tablet recording the allocation of beer

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 26 April 2012
Probably from southern Iraq, Late Prehistoric period, 3100-3000 BC. This clay tablet has an early example of writing, in the form of pictographs drawn in clay with a sharp instrument. In this case they record the allocation of beer. The symbol for beer, an upright jar with pointed base, appears three times on the tablet. Beer was the most popular... [continue reading]
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Map of Sogdiana, ca. 300 BCE

by Cp
published on 26 April 2012
Map of Sogdiana ca. 300 BCE. (Alternate names: Sughd, Sugdiane, Sughuda, Sute)
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Ancient Egyptian Brewery and Bakery

by Keith Schengili-Roberts
published on 26 April 2012
A funerary model of a bakery and brewery, dating the 11th dynasty, circa 2009-1998 B.C. Painted and gessoed wood, originally from Thebes.
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Bust of Julius Caesar

by Tataryn77
published on 26 April 2012
The "Tusculum portrait", one of two surviving busts of Julius Caesar made during his lifetime.
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Map of Roman Britain, 150 AD

by Andrei nacu
published on 26 April 2012
Map of Roman Britain ca. 150 AD, showing the main Roman roads, cities, and Brythonic tribes.
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Map of the Saxon Shore, ca. 380 AD

by Cplakidas
published on 26 April 2012
The Late Roman fortifications of the "Saxon Shore" (litus Saxonicum) in Britain and France.
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Map of Roman Buildings in Carthage

by Holger Behr
published on 26 April 2012
Rough map of modern Carthage showing remaining ruins from Punic and Roman Era.
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Portrait of Queen Hatshepsut

by Rob Koopman
published on 03 January 2012
A stone statue of Queen Hatshepsut of Egypt (reigned 1479–1458 BC, 18th Dynasty).
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Map of Byzantine Constantinople

by Cplakidas
published on 21 December 2011
Topographical map of Constantinople during the Byzantine period. Main map source: R. Janin, Constantinople Byzantine. Developpement urbain et repertoire topographique. Road network and some other details based on Dumbarton Oaks Papers 54; data on many churches, especially unidentified ones, taken from the University of New York's The Byzantine Churches... [continue reading]
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Map of Armenia, 50 AD

by Cplakidas
published on 26 April 2012
Map of Armenia and the Roman client states in eastern Asia Minor, ca. 50 AD, before the Roman-Parthian War and the annexation of the client kingdoms into the Empire.
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Map Roman-Parthian War, 58-60 AD

by Cplakidas
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the troop movements during the first two years of the Roman-Parthian War over Armenia (58 to 63 AD), detailing the Roman offensive into Armenia and capture of the country by Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo.
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Map of the Roman-Parthian War, 61-63 AD

by Cplakidas
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the troop movements during the last years of the Roman-Parthian War over Armenia (58 to 63 AD), detailing the Parthian counteroffensive and the defeat of the Roman army under L. Caesennius Paetus at Rhandeia.
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Map of the Vandalic War

by Cplakidas
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the operations of the Vandalic War in 533-534, including the rebellions on Tripolitania and Sardinia.
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Map of the Gothic War

by Cplakidas
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the operations of the first phase of the Gothic War between the Ostrogoths and the Byzantine Empire, covering the period from the first Byzantine attacks in 535 until the fall of Ravenna in 540 and the recall of Belisarius.
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Map of the Battle of the Granicus

by US Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
A map showing the Battle of the Granicus River, May 334 BCE.
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Belisarius

by Eloquence
published on 05 January 2012
Belisarius may be this bearded figure on the right of Emperor Justinian I in the mosaic in the Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, which celebrates the reconquest of Italy by the Byzantine army under the skillful leadership of Belisarius. The identification was mentioned in the Soviet Military Encyclopedia (1980).
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The Battle of Zama - Cavalry Charge

by Mohammad Adil
published on 26 April 2012
The Battle of Zama (202 BCE). Scipio and Hannibal rearrange their troops in a single line and battle remains stalemate until Roman cavalry returns and attacks Hannibal's infantry at the rear.
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Scipio Africanus

by JarlaxleArtemis
published on 20 December 2011
Scipio Africanus the Elder: The Roman general Scipio earned the surname Africanus after his victory at the Battle of Zama, which ended the Second Punic War in 202 BCE. This bust of Scipio Africanus the Elder is at the National Archeological Museum in Naples, Italy. It was excavated in the Villa dei Papirii in Herculaneum.
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The Battle of Zama - Scipio's Attack

by Mohammad Adil
published on 26 April 2012
The Battle of Zama (202 BCE). Carthaginian cavalry routed off the field. Scipio attacks Hannibal's first and second line of infantry and routs both lines.
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The Battle of Zama - Elephant Charge

by Mohammad Adil
published on 26 April 2012
The Battle of Zama (202 BCE). Roman right wing charges and routs the Carthaginian cavalry, followed by the Roman left wing routing the Carthaginian right wing. Remaining elephants are lured through the lanes and killed.
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The Battle of Zama - Start of the Battle

by Mohammad Adil
published on 26 April 2012
The Battle of Zama (202 BCE): Hannibal starts the battle with his war elephants charging at Roman front. Scipio orders his cavalry to blow loud horns to terrify the charging elephants. The panicked elephants turn at the Carthaginian left wing and disorder it.
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Battle of Cannae - Destruction of the Roman Army

by The Department of History, United States Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the Battle of Cannae showing how Hannibal encircles and defeats the Roman army.
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Battle of Cannae - Initial Deployment

by The Department of History, United States Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the Battle of Cannae showing the initial deployment and the Roman attack.
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Map of the Rhine frontier of the Roman empire, 70AD

by Hans Erren
published on 26 April 2012
Rhine frontier of the Roman empire, 70AD, showing the location of the Batavi in the Rhine delta region. Roman territory shaded darker.
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The Battle of Issus - The Decisive Moment

by Frank Martini. Cartographer, Department of History, United States Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
The Battle of Issus, the decisive moment.
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Plan of the Old Baths of Pompeii

by Overbeck
published on 24 November 2011
Plan of the Old Baths at Pompeii. Legend A — atrium B — apodyterium (room for undressing) C — frigidarium (cool bath) D — tepidarium (warm room) E — caldarium (hot bath) F — thermal chamber G — women's tepidarium H — women's apodyterium J — women's cold bath K — the servants' atrium M — chamber for fornacatores (persons... [continue reading]
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The Battle of Issus - Movements to the Battlefield

by Frank Martini. Cartographer, Department of History, United States Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
The Battle of Issus, Movements to the battlefield.
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The Battle of Issus - Initial Dispositions

by Frank Martini. Cartographer, Department of History, United States Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
The Battle of Issus, Initial dispositions.
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Map: Year of the Four Emperors

by Andrei Nacu & Steerpike
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the Roman Empire during 69AD, the Year of the Four Emperors. Coloured areas indicate provinces loyal to one of four warring generals.
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Hammurabi and Shamash

by Fritz-Milkau
published on 26 April 2012
Hammurabi (standing), depicted as receiving his royal insignia from Shamash. Hammurabi holds his hands over his mouth as a sign of prayer (relief on the upper part of the stele of Hammurabi's code of laws). The upper part of the stela of Hammurapis' code of laws. Fritz-Milkau-Dia-Sammlung, erstellt in der Photographischen Werkstatt der Preußischen Staatsbibliothek von 1926-1933.
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The Battle of Zama - Troop Deployment

by Mohammad Adil
published on 04 January 2012
The Battle of Zama (202 BCE) - Roman and Carthaginian troop deployment.
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Step Pyramid of Saqqara

by Charlesjsharp
published on 26 April 2012
The Pyramid of Djoser (Zoser), or step pyramid (kbhw-ntrw in Egyptian) is an archeological remain in the Saqqara necropolis, Egypt, northwest of the city of Memphis. It was built for the burial of Pharaoh Djoser by his vizier Imhotep, during the 27th century BC. It is the central feature of a vast mortuary complex in an enormous courtyard surrounded by ceremonial... [continue reading]
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Map of the New Kingdom of Egypt, 1450 BC

by Andrei Nacu
published on 17 October 2011
A map showing the maximum territorial extent of the New Kingdom of Egypt, ca. 1450 BC.
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Meroitic Script

by Kwamikagami
published on 17 October 2011
Meroitic hieroglyphic and demotic script. Made from RK Meroitic font (free online, same font as old version) and Gentium Basic for Latin.
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Siege of Tyre

by The Department of History, United States Military Academy
published on 17 October 2011
Map of the Siege of Tyre, November 333 BC to August 332 BC.
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Statue of Asklepios

by Nina Aldin Thune
published on 26 April 2012
Statue of Asclepius, the Greek God of medicine, holding the symbolic Rod of Asclepius with its coiled serpent. The Glypotek, Copenhagen.
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Gypsum statue of a man

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 26 April 2012
Provenance unknown, Mesopotamia Early Dynastic III period, about 2500-2200 BC A votive offering This gypsum statute was deposited in a temple to pray on behalf of the donor. It may have been set up in his lifetime or possibly as a memorial after his death. He wears a fleece skirt often referred to as a kaunakes. The statue was made at a time when southern... [continue reading]
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Colossal statue of a winged lion from the North-West Palace of Ashurnasirpal II

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 26 April 2012
Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), northern Iraq Neo-Assyrian, about 883-859 BC Protection for the royal palace from the forces of chaos This is one of a pair of guardian figures that flanked one of the entrances into the throne room of Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BC). Stone mythological guardians, sculpted in relief or in the round, were often placed at gateways... [continue reading]
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Statue of Ashurnasirpal II

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 26 April 2012
Neo-Assyrian, 883-859 BC From Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), northern Iraq A rare example of an Assyrian statue in the round This statue of King Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BC) was placed in the Temple of Ishtar Sharrat-niphi. It was designed to remind the goddess Ishtar of the king's piety. It is made of magnesite, and stands on a pedestal of a reddish stone... [continue reading]
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The Flood Tablet, relating part of the Epic of Gilgamesh

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 26 April 2012
From Nineveh, northern Iraq, Neo-Assyrian, 7th century BC The most famous cuneiform tablet from Mesopotamia The Assyrian King Ashurbanipal (reigned 669-631 BC) collected a library of thousands of cuneiform tablets in his palace at Nineveh. It included letters, legal texts, lists of people, animals and goods, and a wealth of scientific information... [continue reading]
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Babylonian Map of the World

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 26 April 2012
Babylonian, about 700-500 BC Probably from Sippar, southern Iraq A unique ancient map of the Mesopotamian world This tablet contains both a cuneiform inscription and a unique map of the Mesopotamian world. Babylon is shown in the centre (the rectangle in the top half of the circle), and Assyria, Elam and other places are also named. The central area... [continue reading]
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Baal Statue

by Jastrow
published on 26 April 2012
Baal, right arm raised. Bronze figurine, 14th-12th centuries, found in Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit).
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Greek, about 540-530 BC Made in Athens, Greece; found at Vulci (now in Lazio, Italy) Achilles killing the Amazon Queen Penthesilea Penthesilea brought her Amazon warriors to help the Trojans defend their city, but was killed in combat with Achilles, the greatest of the Greek warriors. The scene on this vase shows Achilles looming above her as she sinks... [continue reading]
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Ivory plaque depicting a winged sphinx

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 26 April 2012
Phoenician, 9th-8th century BC Found at Fort Shalmaneser, Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), northern Iraq Clear Egyptian connections Fort Shalmaneser consisted of a palace, storerooms and arsenal for the Assyrian army. This openwork ivory plaque may originally have been part of a piece of furniture which came to Nimrud, the Assyrian capital, as part of tribute... [continue reading]
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Map of Ubaid Culture

by NordNordWest
published on 26 April 2012
A map showing the extension of Ubaid Culture, ca. 5900 to 4300 BCE.
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Amorite pottery juglet

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 26 April 2012
Amorite, about 2400-2000 BC From the Middle Euphrates region, Syria This juglet, with its applied figurine, is pierced at the base and may have been a strainer. Alternatively it could have been used a sprinkler, by clamping a thumb over the top when the vessel was filled with liquid, then withdrawing it gently and so releasing the pressure. Much... [continue reading]
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Statue of Idrimi

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 26 April 2012
Late Bronze Age / Syrian, 16th century BC From Tell Atchana (ancient Alalakh), modern Turkey A statue of a king of Alalakh, covered with his biography in cuneiform This extraordinary statue represents Idrimi, a king of Alalakh. It was discovered by the excavator Leonard Woolley in the ruins of a temple at the site of Tell Atchana (ancient Alalakh... [continue reading]
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Supposed Location of the Land of Punt

by Cush
published on 26 April 2012
This map depicts a possible location of the Land of Punt, together with travel routes from Egypt to Punt.
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Banner at the North Gate of Dholavira

by Swastik
published on 26 April 2012
The 10 Harappan alphabets/signs found at the Northern Gate of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization city of Dholavira. Each of these are up to 37 cm high and are thought to have been hung as a 'Banner' on the city gate.
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Queen Tiye

by 83d40m
published on 26 April 2012
Tiye (c. 1398 BCE – 1338 BCE, also spelled Taia, Tiy and Tiyi) was the daughter of Yuya and Tjuyu (also spelled Thuyu). She became the Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep III.
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The judgement of the dead

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 26 April 2012
From Thebes, Egypt 19th Dynasty, around 1275 BC The judgement of the dead in the presence of Osiris This is an excellent example of one of the many fine vignettes (illustrations) from the Book of the Dead of Hunefer. The scene reads from left to right. To the left, Anubis brings Hunefer into the judgement area. Anubis is also shown supervizing... [continue reading]
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Nebamun Hunting in the Marshes

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 26 April 2012
Thebes, Egypt Late 18th Dynasty, around 1350 BC Fowling in the marshes Nebamun is shown hunting birds, in a small boat with his wife Hatshepsut and their young daughter, in the marshes of the Nile. Such scenes had already been traditional parts of tomb-chapel decoration for hundreds of years and show the dead tomb-owner ‘enjoying himself and seeing beauty’... [continue reading]
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Ram in a Thicket

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 26 April 2012
From Ur, southern Iraq, about 2600-2400 BC This is one of an almost identical pair discovered by Leonard Woolley in the 'Great Death Pit', one of the graves in the Royal Cemetery at Ur. The other is now in the University of Pennsylvania Museum in Philadelphia. It was named the 'Ram in a Thicket' by the excavator Leonard Woolley, who liked biblical allusions... [continue reading]
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The Standard of Ur

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 26 April 2012
From Ur, southern Iraq, about 2600-2400 BC This object was found in one of the largest graves in the Royal Cemetery at Ur, lying in the corner of a chamber above the right shoulder of a man. Its original function is not yet understood. Leonard Woolley, the excavator at Ur, imagined that it was carried on a pole as a standard, hence its common name. Another... [continue reading]
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Amenhotep III

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 26 April 2012
From the mortuary temple of Amenhotep III, Thebes, Egypt 18th Dynasty, about 1350 BC Amenhotep III commissioned hundreds of sculptures for his mortuary temple on the west bank of the Nile at Thebes, though the precise original location of most of them is not known. They included not only figures of the king but also a large range of animal sculptures... [continue reading]
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Great Zimbabwe

by Zamani Project
published on 17 September 2012
Conical Towers in Great Zimbabwe, 3D reconstruction by the Zamani Project.
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Nebra Sky Disc

by Rainer Zenz
published on 26 April 2012
A photo of the Nebra Sky Disc, a Bronze Age artifact (c. 1600 BC) found in Nebra, Germany.
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Map of Sumer and Elam

by Phirosiberia
published on 26 April 2012
Map with the locations of the main cities of Sumer and Elam.
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Dancing girl of Mohenjo Daro

by Joe Ravi
published on 26 April 2012
Replica of 'Dancing Girl' of Mohenjo-daro at Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya in Mumbai, India.
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Shiva Pashupati

by Marcus334
published on 26 April 2012
Seal discovered during excavation of the Mohenjodaro archaeological site in the Indus Valley has drawn attention as a possible representation of a "yogi" or "proto-Shiva" figure.[3] This "Pashupati" (Lord of Animals, Sanskrit paśupati)[4][5] seal shows a seated figure, possibly ithyphallic, surrounded by animals. 2600–1900 BCE.
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White Horse of Uffington

by superdove
published on 26 April 2012
The white horse of Uffington, a Bronze Age carving into the chalk hills in Oxfordshire, England.
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Septimius Severus

by Bibi Saint-Pol
published on 26 April 2012
Bust of Septimius Severus (reign 193–211 CE). White, fine-grained marble, modern restorations (nose, parts of the beard, draped bust). Glyptothek, Munich.
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Roman Empire 271 AD

by Pomalee et al.
published on 26 April 2012
The Roman Empire by 271 A.D before the reconquests of the Palmyrene Empire and Gallic Empire by Aurelian.
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Roman Emperor Claudius II

by Ronan.guilloux
published on 26 April 2012
Bust of Roman Emperor Claudius II, r. 268-270 CE. (Santa Giulia Museum, Brescia)
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Victory Stele of Naram-Sin

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 26 April 2012
Victory Stele of Naram-Sin, king of Akkad. Circa 2250 BC. Brought from Sippar to Susa in the 12th century BC. Restored in 1992 AD. Displayed in the Louvre Museum, Paris.
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Satrapies in the Macedonian Empire

by Fornadan
published on 26 April 2012
A map showing the distribution of satrapies in the Macedonian empire after the Settlement in Babylon summer/fall 323 BC.
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Ancient Near Eastern Metal Production

by Crates & Phirosiberia
published on 26 April 2012
A map showing the major sites of metal production in the Ancient Near East, including Egypt, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Persia, and the Indus Valley Civilization.
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Philip II of Macedon's 339 BC Campaign

by MinisterForBadTimes
published on 26 April 2012
Map of Philip II of Macedon's campaign in Greece, 339 BC
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Map of Minoan Crete

by Bibi Saint-Pol
published on 26 April 2012
A map of Minoan Crete.
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The Pyramids of Giza

by dungodung
published on 26 April 2012
A photo showing the three Pyramids of Giza. From left to right they are: - The Pyramid of Menkaure (c. 2532–2504 BCE) - The Pyramid of Khafre (c. 2558–2532 BCE) - The Great Pyramid of Khufu (c. 2589–2566 BCE)
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Ruins of Ur

by M.Lubinski
published on 26 April 2012
Ruins in the Town of Ur, Southern Iraq.
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Bronze Age Helmet

by Carlos de Paz
published on 26 April 2012
Bronze Age golden helmet found in Leiro, Galicia (modern-day Spain). Museo de San Antón, A Coruña.
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Map of Gaul

by Feitscherg
published on 26 April 2012
A map of Gaul indicating the local tribes, regions, and cities, circa 54 BCE.
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Bust of Pythagoras

by Skies
published on 26 April 2012
Bust of Pythagoras of Samos, display in the Capitoline Museums, Rome.
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Map of Lutetia

by Jean-Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville
published on 26 April 2012
A 18th century map of Lutetia by Jean-Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville (1697–1782).
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Gandhara Buddha

by World Imaging
published on 26 April 2012
One of the first representations of the Buddha, 1st-2nd century AD, Gandhara: Standing Buddha. Tokyo National Museum
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Buddha with Hercules Protector

by World Imaging
published on 26 April 2012
Heracles depiction of Vajrapani as the protector of the Buddha, 2nd century AD Gandhara, British Museum.
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Yakshi

by Ackland Art Museum
published on 26 April 2012
Mathura region: Yakshi, ca. second century CE: sandstone. The William A. Whitaker Foundation Art Fund. Republished with permission from the Ackland Art Museum. Credit: 84.2.1 Unidentified Artist Indian, Mathura region: Yakshi, 2nd century, Sanstone, 17 7/16 x 5 3/4 x 3 1/2 in (44.29 x 14.61 x 8.89 cm) Ackland Art Museum, University of North Carolina... [continue reading]
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Map of the Mediterranean 550 BC

by Javierfv1212
published on 26 April 2012
A map of the Mediterranean around 550 BC, showing the major cultures: - Greece and its colonies - Phoenicia and its colonies - Lydia - Egypt - Persia - Thrace - Illyria
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Lion's Gate at Mycenae

by Andreas Trepte, www.photo-natur.de
published on 26 April 2012
The famous Lion's Gate in the ruins of Mycenae.
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Map of the Roman Conquest of Italy

by Javierfv1212
published on 30 March 2014
This map shows the Roman conquest of Italy from 500 BCE to 218 BCE.
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The Empire of Alexander the Great

by Captain Blood
published on 26 April 2012
A map showing the Empire of Alexander the Great, his conquests, and the routes he took (334 BC - 323 BC). Major cities, roads, and battles are indicated.
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Map of Prehistoric Illyria

by Megistias
published on 26 April 2012
A map showing the sites and cultures of prehistoric Illyria.
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Map of the Illyrian Tribes

by Megistias
published on 26 April 2012
A map showing the Illyrian tribes prior to Roman conquest, including Phrygian tribes, Venetic tribes, independent tribes, and those under Celtic influence.
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Map of Greece under Theban Hegemony

by Megistias
published on 26 April 2012
A map showing ancient Greece at the time of Theban hegemony, 371 BCE to 362 BCE.
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Map of the Expansion of Macedon

by Megistias
published on 26 April 2012
A map showing the expansion of Macedon, around the time of the Peloponnesian War, between 431 - 336 BC.
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Map of Roman Dacia

by Andrei nacu
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the roman province of Dacia, part of modern day Romania and Serbia, between the era of Trajan (106 AD) and the evacuation of the province in 271 AD. Roman settlements and legion garrisons with Latin names included.
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Map of the Tribes in Thrace

by Megistias
published on 26 April 2012
A map showing the major tribes in Thrace and the surrounding regions.
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Map of the Ptolemaic World

by J M Dent (1912)
published on 26 April 2012
A map showing the known world at the time of the Ptolemaic Empire, ca. 300 BC.
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Battles of Ancient Greece

by Megistias
published on 26 April 2012
A map showing the locations of battles in ancient Greece.
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Map of Classical Greek Sanctuaries

by Marsyas
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the main religious sanctuaries of classical Greece. The following gods' sanctuaries are marked in colour: Aphrodite, Apollo, Artemis, Asclepius, Athena, Dionysius, Demeter, Hera, Poseidon, Zeus.
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Map of Archaic Greece

by Megistias
published on 26 April 2012
A map of the political structure of Greece in the Archaic Age (ca. 750 - 490 BC).
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The Eastern Hemisphere, 100 BC

by Thomas Lessman
published on 26 April 2012
A map showing the major empires, kingdoms, tribes, and ethnic groups of the Eastern Hemisphere in 100 BC.
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Bust of Marcus Antonius

by Tataryn77
published on 26 April 2012
A bust of Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), from the Vatican Museums.
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Bust of Cleopatra

by Louis le Grand
published on 26 April 2012
Marlbe bust of Cleopatra VI of Egypt form 30-40 BC. Altes Museum Berlin.
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Cleopatra and Caesar

by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
published on 26 April 2012
Cleopatra Before Caesar by Jean-Léon Gérôme, oil on canvas, 1866. Cleopatra confronts Gaius Julius Caesar after emerging from a roll of carpet. The Egyptian Queen had been driven from the palace in Alexandria by her brother/husband Ptolemy XIII. She had to disguise herself to regain entry and treat with Caesar for protection and restoration of her throne.
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Map of India, 600 BC

by Kmusser
published on 26 April 2012
Mahajanapadas (Sanskrit: महाजनपद, Mahājanapadas), literally "great realms", (from maha, "great", and janapada "foothold of a tribe", "country") were ancient Indian kingdoms or countries. Ancient Buddhist texts like Anguttara Nikaya make frequent reference to sixteen great kingdoms and republics (Solas Mahajanapadas) which had evolved and flourished... [continue reading]
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Map of the Indus Valley Civilization

by Dbachmann
published on 26 April 2012
Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization. The shaded area does not include recent excavations such as Rupar, Balakot, Shortughai in Afghanistan, Manda in Jammu, etc.
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Entrance to the royal palace at Ugarit

by Disdero
published on 26 April 2012
This is the entrance to the excavated ruins of the royal palace at Ugarit.
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Sanctuary of Apollo in Delphi

by Marcel Germain
published on 26 April 2012
Delphi was the site of the Delphic oracle, the most important oracle in the classical Greek world, when it was a major site for the worship of the god Apollo after he slew the Python, a deity who lived there and protected the navel of the Earth. His sacred precinct in Delphi was a panhellenic sanctuary, where every four years athletes from all over the Greek... [continue reading]
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Sanctuary of Apollon in Cyrene

by Xavier de Jauréguiberry
published on 26 April 2012
Ruins of the Sanctuary of Apollon in Cyrene, modern Libya.
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Agora of Cyrene

by Xavier de Jauréguiberry
published on 26 April 2012
The ruins of the agora in Cyrene, modern Libya.
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Ptolemy I Soter and Wife Eurydice

by # wynnter
published on 26 April 2012
Ptolemy I Soter (367 - 283 BCE) was a trusted Macedonian general of Alexander the Great, and became ruler of Egypt. Engraved by an unknown artist after an ancient Roman relic. It was published in a history of Italian Renaissance art in 1883 and is now in the public domain.
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Possible Pepper Trade Route

by Bunchofgrapes
published on 26 April 2012
A possible trade route for pepper from India to Rome.
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Black Pepper

by Franz Eugen Köhler
published on 26 April 2012
From Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen (1897).
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Iceni Territory

by Jpb1301
published on 26 April 2012
A map showing the territory of the Iceni tribe overlayed in red in the context of the modern county boundaries of England and Wales.
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Old Forum of Leptis Magna

by Witold Ryka
published on 26 April 2012
The Old Roman Forum of Leptis Magna.
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Map of Lepcis Magna

by Holger Behr
published on 26 April 2012
Map (rough) of ancient Leptis Magna, Libya, own work composed from various map references.
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Stonehenge

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 26 April 2012
View of Stonehenge in Wiltshire, England.
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Plan of Stonehenge

by Adamsan
published on 26 April 2012
The site of Stonehenge as of AD 2004. The plan omits the trilithon lintels for clarity. Holes that no longer, or never, contained stones are shown as open circles and stones visible today are shown coloured, grey for sarsen and blue for the imported stone, mainly bluestone. Key to plan: The Altar Stone, a six ton monolith of green micaceous sandstone... [continue reading]
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Map of the Indo-Saka Kingdoms

by World Imaging
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the Indo-Saka / Indo-Scythian Kingdoms.
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Theatre of Epidaurus

by PanosKarapanagiotis
published on 26 April 2012
Theatre of Epidaurus, Greece.
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Knossos

by sagaYago
published on 26 April 2012
Knossos is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete, probably the ceremonial and political center of the Minoan civilization and culture. It is a popular tourist destination today, as it is near the main city of Heraklion and has been substantially if imaginatively "rebuilt", making the site accessible to the casual visitor in a way that a field of unmarked ruins is not.
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Lion of Babylon

by oversnap
published on 26 April 2012
Ancient glazed tiles from the gates of ancient Babylon (Iraq) depict a lion. The Lion is the symbol of Babylon, and represents Ishtar, the goddess of fertility, love and war. Meant not only to symbolise Babylon, but to instill fear in enemies, it seems fitting that a single stone lion, albeit poorly preserved, is the only true remainder of Babylon that stands... [continue reading]
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Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius

by Bibi Saint-Pol
published on 26 April 2012
Bust of Marcus Aurelius (reign 161–180 CE). Glyptothek, Munich, Germany.
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The Akkadian Dynasty

by John D. Croft
published on 26 April 2012
A family tree of the Akkadian Dynasty, starting with La'ibum and Sargon of Akkad.
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Bust of Parmenides

by BjörnF
published on 26 April 2012
Bust of the philosopher Parmenides of Elea.
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The Colosseum of Rome

by Diliff
published on 26 April 2012
Photo of the Colosseum in Rome, completed 80 AD.
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Map of the Mediterranean 218 BC

by Megistias
published on 26 April 2012
A map of the Mediterranean in 218 BC, showing the territorial extents of the following states: - Antigonids - Attalids - Carthage - Ptolemies - Roman Empire - Seleucids Major battle locations are also shown.
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Map of the Levant circa 830 BCE

by Richardprins
published on 26 April 2012
A map of Palestine circa 830 BC, showing the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, as well as the surrounding kingdoms and tribes.
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Map of the Iberian Penninsula in 125 AD

by Andrei nacu
published on 26 April 2012
A map showing Iberian peninsula in 125 AD including important roads, locations of legions and gold (Au) and silver (Ag) mines.
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Nebuchadnezzar II

by Hedning
published on 26 April 2012
An engraving inside an onyx-stone-eye in a Marduk statue that depicts Nebuchadnezzar II.
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Map of Europe in 125 CE

by Andrei nacu
published on 26 April 2012
A map of the Roman Empire and Europe in 125 CE, at the time of Roman emperor Hadrian. "Barbarian" names and locations are given as found in the works of Tacitus (written c. 100 CE).
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Ruins of Ebla

by Inge
published on 26 April 2012
The image shows part of the excavated city of Ebla in Syria. Most of the ruins have been given a top layer of new bricks. Some stones used to grind flour are also seen in the picture.
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Panorama of Palmyra

by Zeledi
published on 26 April 2012
A panoramic view of ruins of the ancient desert city of Palmyra in Syria, which grew large in the Syrian desert in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The ruins are now a United Nations World Heritage site.
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Roman Empire in 117 CE

by Andrei nacu
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the Roman Empire at its maximum extent in 117 CE, under the rule of Trajan.
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Empire of Cyrus the Great

by SG
published on 26 April 2012
The Achaemenid Empire during the reign of Cyrus the Great, 559 BC-530 BCE. Major cities are marked and modern borders are superimposed.
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Tomb of Cyrus

by Sebastià Giralt
published on 26 April 2012
The Tomb of Cyrus is the burial place of the ancient Cyrus the Great of Persia. The tomb is located in modern day Iran, at the Pasargadae World Heritage Site. Cyrus the Great (c. 590 BC; August 529 BC or 530 BC), or Cyrus II of Persia was a Persian Shahenshah (or Emperor), who founded of the Persian Empire under the Achaemenid dynasty. This empire thence expanded... [continue reading]
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Prison of Solomon

by Sebastià Giralt
published on 26 April 2012
The so-called Prison of Solomon (Zendan-i Suleiman), Pasargadae, Iran. A fire temple, a tomb or a depository, this now-fragmentary construction continues to defy secure interpretation.
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Indo-Greek Campaigns

by PHGCOM
published on 26 April 2012
Indo-Greek territory and campaigns, with known encounters.
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Pasargadae Palace

by dynamosquito
published on 26 April 2012
Cyrus the great's private palace at Pasargadae. This palace is one of the two first builded in the emerging capital of the founder of the new persian empire. Before Pasargadae, the persian who were nomadic shepperds, had no real architectural traditions of stone and columned palaces. Pasargade changed that, and shows the first attempts to set the persian achaemenian... [continue reading]
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Pasargadae Audience Hall

by Zereshk
published on 26 April 2012
The audience hall of the royal palace in Pasargadae.
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Greek and Aramaic inscriptions by king Ashoka

by World Imaging
published on 26 April 2012
Bilingual (Greek and Aramaic) inscriptions by king Ashoka at Kandahar (Shar-i-kuna). (3rd century BCE). Preserved at Kabul Museum. Today disappeared. Two-dimensional inscription. Greek (transliteration) 1. δέκα ἐτῶν πληρη[....]ων βασι[λ]εὺς 2. Πιοδασσης εὐσέβεια[ν ἔδ]ε[ι]ξεν τοῖς ἀν-... [continue reading]
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Map of Mesopotamia, c. 1400 BC

by Javierfv1212
published on 26 April 2012
This is a map of Mesopotamia showing the dominant kingdoms of Egypt, Mitanni, Hatti, and Kassite Babylonia.
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Temple of Poseidon at Sounion

by Frank van Mierlo
published on 26 April 2012
The temple of Poseidon was constructed in approx. 440 B.C., over the ruins of a temple dating from the Archaic Period. It is perched above the sea at a height of almost 70 m. The design of the temple is a typical hexastyle i.e. it had a front portico with 6 columns. Only some columns of the Sounion temple stand today, but intact it would have closely resembled... [continue reading]
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Map of Gordium

by Jona Lendering
published on 26 April 2012
A map depicting the approximate layout of the Phrygian city of Gordium.
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Map of Ancient Israel

by Jona Lendering
published on 26 April 2012
A map of the ancient Kingdom of Israel and its neighbours.
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The Regions of Ancient Anatolia

by Emok
published on 26 April 2012
A map of the regions of ancient Anatolia, circa 500 BC. Greek settlement areas are noted in italics.
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Map of the Roman Province of Galatia

by Andrei nacu
published on 26 April 2012
A map showing the position of the province of Galatia within the Roman Empire.
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Map of the Hittite Empire (c. 1300 BC)

by Javierfv1212
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the Hittite Empire at its greatest extent under Suppiluliuma I(c. 1350–1322 BCE) and Mursili II (c. 1321–1295 BCE). Because many of the place names have been taken from Hittite sources and compared to classical place names, they may not all be correct as there is still scholarly disagreement (ex. Lukka as Lycia, Karkija as Caria).
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Hittite Lion Statue

by Verity Cridland
published on 26 April 2012
A Hittite lion statue found at the Ain Dara Temple near Aleppo, 10th to 8th century BC.
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Ain Dara Temple

by Odilia
published on 26 April 2012
The Ain Dara temple is an Iron Age Syro-Hittite temple, located northwest of Aleppo, Syria, and dating to between the 10th and 8th century BC. It is noted for its similarities to Solomon's Temple as described in the Hebrew Bible. The surviving sculptures depict lions and sphinxes (comparable to the cherubim of the First Temple). The god's massive footprints are carved into the floor.
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The Sleeping Lady

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 24 May 2013
Temple Period, 4000 - 2500 BCE. This clay figure of a reclining lady was found in one of the pits of the Hypogeum in Hal Saflieni in Malta. It has traces of red ochre paint and is thought to represent a "mother goddess", even though she may equally be a representation of death or eternal sleep. National Museum of Valetta, Malta.
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Caesar's Campaign against the Helvetii

by US Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
A map of Caesar's campaign against the Helvetii in Gaul, 58 BC.
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Caesar's Campaign against the Belgae

by US Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
A map of Caesar's campaign against the Belgae tribe in Gaul, 57 BC.
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The Limes in Germany

by US Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
A map of the limes in Germany.
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Routes of the Barbarian Invaders

by US Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
Routes of the Barbarian invaders into the Roman Empire during the Migration Age.
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Empire of Justinian I

by US Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the Empire of Justinian I from his accession in 527 CE to his conquests up to 565 CE.
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Italian Penninsula

by US Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
Principal areas of the Italian penninsula and its vincinity up to the Second Punic War (218 BC).
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The Western Mediterranean 264 BCE

by Jon Platek
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the western Mediterranean at the time of the First Punic War in 264 BCE.
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Bikini Mosaic

by Roundtheworld
published on 26 April 2012
3rd Century mosaic of Bikini Girls at the Villa Romana at Piazza Armerina in Sicily.
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Odysseus & the Sirens

by Giorces
published on 26 April 2012
Roman mosaic from the 2nd century CE depicting Odysseus and the Sirens. Displayed in the Bardo Museum in Tunisia.
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Temple of Apollo

by Vancouverquadra
published on 26 April 2012
Temple of Apollo, Ancient Corinth, Greece, with the Acrocorinth in the background.
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Scythian Warriors

by 1900 edition of Encyclopedie Larousse Illustree
published on 26 April 2012
Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the Kul'Oba kurgan burial near Kerch. The warrior on the right is stringing his bow, bracing it behind his knee; note the typical pointed hood, long jacket with fur or fleece trimming at the edges, decorated trousers, and short boots tied at the ankle. The hair seems normally to have been worn... [continue reading]
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Macedonia under Philip II

by Marsyas
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the Kingdom of Macedon and its expansions at the death of Philip II in 336 BC. Based on R. Ginouvès et al., La Macédoine, Paris, 1992.
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Map of Europe in 220 BC

by Astrokey44
published on 26 April 2012
Approximate borders in Europe around 220 BC. Based on the Pengiun Atlas of History.
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Queen of the Night

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 26 April 2012
Old Babylonian, 1800-1750 BC From southern Iraq A major acquisition for the British Museum's 250th anniversary This large plaque is made of baked straw-tempered clay, modelled in high relief. The figure of the curvaceous naked woman was originally painted red. She wears the horned headdress characteristic of a Mesopotamian deity and holds a rod and... [continue reading]
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Pompeii and Mt. Vesuivus

by mchen007
published on 26 April 2012
The excavated ruins of Pompeii in the foregreound with the volcano Mt. Vesuvius in the background. Along with Herculaneum, its sister city, Pompeii was destroyed and completely buried during a long catastrophic eruption of the volcano Mount Vesuvius spanning two days in 79 AD. The eruption buried Pompeii under 4 to 6 meters of ash and pumice, and it was... [continue reading]
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Spread of Christianity 325-600 AD

by G.W. et al.
published on 26 April 2012
This map shows the spread of Christianity around the Mediterranean and Europe. Dark Blue: Spread until 325 AD. Light Blue: Spread until 600 AD. Patrick O'Brien, ed (2003). Atlas of World History. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 44-5. 0-19-521921-X.
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Folio of Early Pauline Espitles

by Heycos
published on 26 April 2012
A folio from P46, an early 3rd century collection of Pauline epistles. Folio from Papyrus 46, an early 3rd century collection of Pauline epistles, containing 2 Corinthians 11:33-12:9 Transcription (the bracketed portions are illegible or missing and are not necessarily attested by P46): ενσαργανηεχαλασθηνδιατουτειχουσ... [continue reading]
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Lion Gate of Hattusa

by China_Crisis
published on 26 April 2012
The Lion Gate at Hattusa, Turkey. This was one of the two city gates. The arc is typical for Hittite architecture.
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Hypaspist

by Johnny Shumate
published on 26 April 2012
Hypaspist by Johnny Shumate For more illustrations email shumate_j@bellsouth.net If illustration is used, please credit my name.
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Gudea of Lagash

by Jastrow
published on 26 April 2012
Seating diorite statue of Gudea, prince of Lagash, dedicated to the god Ningishzida, c. 2120 BC (neo-Sumerian period). Excavated in Telloh (ancient Girsu), Iraq. On display at the Louve, Department of Oriental antiquities, Richelieu, ground floor, room 1.
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Temple of Zeus at Cyrene

by Sebastià Giralt
published on 26 April 2012
Temple of Zeus at Cyrene
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Map of Lugalzagesi's Domains

by Zunkir
published on 26 April 2012
A map of the Kingdom of king Lugalzagesi of Umma, circa 2350 BC.
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Reconstruction of the Ziggurat of Ur

by wikiwikiyarou
published on 26 April 2012
A 3D reconstruction of the Great Ziggurat of Ur, based on a 1939 drawing by Leonard Woolley, Ur Excavations, Volume V. The Ziggurat and its Surroundings, Figure 1.4
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Map of Persepolis

by Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, Vol. 2
published on 26 April 2012
Map of Persepolis.
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Isis

by The Yorck Project Gesellschaft für Bildarchivierung GmbH
published on 26 April 2012
The Goddess Isis, wall painting, c. 1360 B.C.
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Pythia of the Oracle of Delphi

by John Collier
published on 26 April 2012
"Priestess of Delphi" by John Collier, 1891. A 19th century vision of how the Pythia might have looked like, and how she became intoxicated by hallucinogenic gases emerging from the floor.
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Agora of Athens

by Madmedea
published on 26 April 2012
A map of the Athenian Agora in the 5th century BCE. Key 1 Peristylar Court 2 Mint 3 Enneacrounos 4 South stoa 5 Heliaea 6 Strategeion 7 Colonos Agoraios 8 Tholos 9 Agora stone 10 Monument of the Eponymous Heroes 11 Old Bouleuterion 12 New Bouleuterion 13 Temple of Hephaestus (Hephaestion) 14 Temple of Apollo Patroos 15 Stoa of Zeus 16 Altar... [continue reading]
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Great Ziggurat of Ur

by Hardnfast
published on 26 April 2012
The ruins of the Great Ziggurat of Ur, taken in 2005 near Ali Air Base in Iraq. The ziggurat was built by the Sumerian King Ur-Nammu and his son Shulgi in approximately the 21st century BC (short chronology) during the Third Dynasty of Ur. The massive step pyramid measured 210 feet (64m) in length, 150 feet (46m) in width and over 100 feet (30m) in height... [continue reading]
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Model of the Temple of Artemis

by Faigl.ladislav
published on 26 April 2012
Model of the Temple of Artemis, Miniature Park, Istanbul, Turkey.
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Lighthouse of Alexandria

by Prof. H. Thiersch
published on 26 April 2012
A drawing of the Lighthouse of Alexandria, also known as Pharos, by German archaeologist Prof. H. Thiersch (1909).
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Temple of Hatshepsut

by iStockphoto
published on 26 April 2012
Djeser-Djeseru is the main building of Hatshepsut's mortuary temple complex at Deir el-Bahri. Designed by Senemut, her vizier, the building is an example of perfect symmetry that predates the Parthenon, and it was the first complex built on the site she chose, which would become the Valley of the Kings
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Map of Tartessos with Phoenician and Greek colonies

by Té y kriptonita with modifications by Jan van der Crabben
published on 26 April 2012
A map of Tartessos, showing its sphere of influence, as well as Greek and Phoenician colonies in southern Spain.
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Hatshepsut

by Postdlf
published on 26 April 2012
Detail of Hatshepsut, Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, c. 1473-1458 B.C. Indurated limestone sculpture at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. Hatshepsut is depicted in the clothing of a male king though with a feminine form. Inscriptions on the statue call her "Daughter of en:Re" and "Lady of the Two Lands." Most of the statue's fragments were excavated... [continue reading]
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Evolution of the Phoenician Alphabet

by Zander Schubert
published on 26 April 2012
The Phoenician alphabet and its equivalents in four modern alphabets. From left to right: Latin, Greek, Phoenician, Hebrew, Arabic. Legend: In the middle column you'll find the original Phoenician letters, with their modern equivalents in other languages in the same row. Each Phoenician letter has its own color. Arrows also relate letters to their equivalents.
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Phoenician Alphabet

by Ansgar
published on 26 April 2012
The Phoenician alphabet.
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Threshing of Grain in Egypt

by The Yorck Project Gesellschaft für Bildarchivierung GmbH
published on 26 April 2012
From the grave of Menna, the agricultural scribe of the Pharaoh. Scene: Threshing of grain. c. 1422-1411 BCE
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Carthage during the Punic Wars

by Javierfv1212
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the Carthaginian Empire and its losses during the Punic Wars.
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Map of the Fertile Crescent

by NormanEinstein
published on 26 April 2012
This map shows the location and extent of the Fertile Crescent, a region in the Middle East incorporating Ancient Egypt; the Levant; and Mesopotamia.
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Map of the Hittite Empire

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the maximum extent of the Hittite Empire in ca. 1285 BC.
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Map of Troy

by Bibi Saint-Pol
published on 26 April 2012
Plan of the archeological site of Troy/Hisarlik. Legend: 1: Gate 2: City Wall 3: Megarons 4: FN Gate 5: FO Gate 6: FM Gate and Ramp 7: FJ Gate 8: City Wall 9: Megarons 10: City Wall 11: VI. S Gate 12: VI. H Tower 13: VI. R Gate 14: VI. G Tower 15: Well-Cistern 16: VI. T Dardanos Gate 17: VI. I Tower 18: VI. U Gate 19: VI. A House... [continue reading]
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The Battle of Lake Trasimene

by The Department of History, United States Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
As Hannibal passed Lake Trasimene, he came to a place very suitable for an ambush, and hearing that Flaminius had broken camp and was pursuing him, made preparations for the impending battle. To the north was a series of heavily forested hills where the Malpasso Road passed along the north side of Lake Trasimene. Along the hill-bordered skirts of the lake, Hannibal... [continue reading]
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Map of Hannibals Route into Italy

by The Department of History, United States Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
Hannibal's route into Italy in the Second Punic war.
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Map of the Battle of Trebia

by The Department of History, United States Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the Battle of Trebia (218 BC), illustrating Hannibal's strategy.
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Satyrs Making Wine

by Wikipedia
published on 26 April 2012
Satyrs making wine, dionysianbas-relief from altar of unknown date, National Archaeological Museum of Athens.
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Akkadian Ruler

by Sumerophile
published on 26 April 2012
Bronze head of an Akkadian ruler, probably Sargon the Great, c. 23rd - 22nd century BCE.
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Map of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom

by PHGCOM
published on 26 April 2012
Approximate maximum extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 180 BCE, including the regions of Tapuria and Traxiane to the West, Sogdiana and Ferghana to the north, Bactria and Arachosia to the south.
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World Map of Herodotus

by Bibi Saint-Pol
published on 26 April 2012
Possibly what Herodotus believed the world looked like (5th century BC).
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Map of the Akkadian Empire

by Nareklm
published on 26 April 2012
The empire of Sargon, late 24th century BC.
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Ur-Nammu

by Donald A. Mackenzie
published on 26 April 2012
Ur-Nammu (seated) bestows governorship on Ḫašḫamer, patesi (high priest) of Iškun-Sin (cylinder seal impression, c. 2100 BCE). Greenstone seal(clay impression of the cylinder seal) of Hashhamer, Governor of Ishkun-Sin. Third Dynasty of Ur, about 2100 BCE, from Babylon, southern Iraq. Length: 5.28 cm Diameter: 2.87 cm Obtained at Babylon... [continue reading]
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Poulnabrone Dolmen

by pdphoto.org
published on 26 April 2012
Poulnabrone Dolmen, County Clare, Ireland. Poulnabrone Dolmen (Poll na mBrón in Irish meaning "hole of sorrows") is a portal tomb in the Burren, County Clare, Ireland, dating back to the Neolithic period, probably between 4200 BC to 2900 BC.
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Map of Lydia

by Roke
published on 26 April 2012
Map of Lydia in the middle of the 6th century BCE. The red line shows a second possibility of how the borders were.
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Greek Trireme

by MatthiasKabel & Sting
published on 26 April 2012
Model of a Greek Trireme. Displayed at Deutsches Museum, Munich, Germany.
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Euthydemos I

by PHGCOM
published on 26 April 2012
Coin with Greek inscription reads: ΕΥΘΥΔΗΜΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ i.e. "of Euthydemus God", Euthydemus qualified as "THEOU" ("God"). (Pedigree coin of Agathocles of Bactria.)
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Map of the Battle of Gaugamela - Alexander's Attack

by US Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
A map of the battle of Gaugamela depicting Alexander the Great attacking Darius III, a move that led to victory.
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Map of the Peloponnesian War, Beginning

by U.S. Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the Alliances of the Peloponnesian War, as well as the respective strategies of the opposing factions of Sparta and Athens, and their allies.
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Persian Archers

by mshamma
published on 26 April 2012
Persian Archers at Darius' palace at Susa. Exhibited in Pergamon Museum / Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin.
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Achaemenid Empire Map

by Fabienkhan
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the Achaemenid Persian Empire at its greatest extent. nspired by Historical Atlas of Georges Duby (p.11, map D), this map was made by Fabienkhan the 24th of August 2006, using Inkscape and GIMP. Arad translated the map to help.
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Tomb of Cyrus the Great

by Behrad18n
published on 26 April 2012
Monument that is generally believed to be the tomb of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae, the oldest base-isolated structure in the world.
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Map of the Battle of Gaugamela - Setup

by US Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
The opening of the battle of Gaugamela.
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Forum Romanum

by wili_hybrid
published on 26 April 2012
The ruins of the Forum Romanum in Rome.
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The Silk Road

by Shizhao
published on 26 April 2012
This map indicates trading routes used around the 1st century CE centred on the Silk Road. The routes remain largely valid for the period 500 BCE to 500 CE. Geographical labels for regions are adapted from the Geography of Ptolemy (c. 150 CE), some trading centre names date from later (c. 400 CE). Relying on Ptolemy's names is wrong but neutral... [continue reading]
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Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna Period

by Briangotts
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna Period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani (red). Lighter areas show direct control, darker areas represent spheres of influence. The extent of the Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in orange.
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Destruction of Susa

by Zereshk
published on 26 April 2012
Ashurbanipal's campaign against Susa is triumphantly recorded in this relief showing the sack of Susa in 647 BC. Here, flames rise from the city as Assyrian soldiers topple it with pickaxes and crowbars and carry off the spoils.
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Elam Map

by Dbachmann
published on 26 April 2012
Map showing the area of the Elamite Empire (in red) and the neighboring areas. The approximate Bronze Age extension of the Persian Gulf is shown.
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Elamite Cup

by Zereshk
published on 26 April 2012
Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with linear-Elamite inscription on it. Late 3rd Millennium BC. National Museum of Iran.
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Palace of Khorsabad

by anonymous
published on 26 April 2012
Artistic attempt at reconstruction of the inside of the palace of Khorsabad, constructed by the Assyrian king Sargon II. From the 1901 Brockhaus Enzyklopädie.
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Tomb of Xerxes

by Roodiparse
published on 26 April 2012
The rock-cut tomb at Naqsh-e Rustam north of Persepolis, copying that of Darius I, is usually assumed to be that of Xerxes I.
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Acropolis

by anonymous
published on 26 April 2012
Artist's impression of a reconstructed Acropolis, from the 1901 Brockhaus Enzyklopädie.
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Map of Jewish Deportations

by Joelholdsworth
published on 26 April 2012
A map showing the deportation of the Jews by the Assyrians.
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King Ashurbanipal

by Artaxiad
published on 26 April 2012
King Ashurbanipal in a detail of a Neo-Assyrian relief depicting a lion hunt (British Museum).
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Lions Gate Detail (Mycenae)

by Jan van der Crabben (Photographer)
published on 26 April 2012
Detail photo of the Lions Gate in Mycenae, Argolis, Greece.
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Alexander the Great

by Ruthven
published on 26 April 2012
Detail of the Alexander Mosaic, representing Alexander the Great on his horse Bucephalus, during the battle of Issus.
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Map of 2nd Century Roman Expansion

by US Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
A map showing the early expansions of Rome, in the 2nd century BC.
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Map of Alexander the Great's Conquests

by US Military Academy
published on 20 December 2011
A map showing the route that Alexander the Great took to conquer Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Bactria.
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Sarcophagus of Ahiram

by G. Eric and Edith Matson Photograph Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (1936)
published on 26 April 2012
The Sarcophagus of Ahiram, king of Byblos, bearing the oldest inscription of the Phoenician alphabet, which reads: "Coffin which Ittobaal, son of Ahiram, king of Byblos, made for Ahiram, his father, when he placed him in the 'house of eternity'. Now if a king among kings or a governor among governors or a commander of an army should come up against Byblos... [continue reading]
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Battle of Chaeronia

by US Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
A map illustrating the battle of Chaeronia.
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Map of Classical Greece

by US Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
A map showing classical Greece and the Aegaean islands.
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Map of Persia and the March of the Ten Thousand

by US Military Academy
published on 26 April 2012
A map of Persia, indicating major settlements, regions, and mountain ranges, as well as the march of the Ten Thousand (dotted line). The Ten Thousand were a group of mercenary units, mainly Greek, drawn up by Cyrus the Younger to attempt to wrest the throne of the Persian Empire from his brother, Artaxerxes II. Their march to the Battle of Cunaxa and back... [continue reading]
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Pont Du Gard Aqueduct

by Michael Gwyther-Jones
published on 26 April 2012
The Pont du Gard is an aqueduct in the South of France constructed by the Roman Empire, and located in Vers-Pont-du-Gard near Remoulins, in the Gard département. It has long been thought that the Pont du Gard was built by Augustus' son-in-law and aide, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, around the year 19 BC. Newer excavations, however, suggest the construction... [continue reading]
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Hadrian's Wall

by zoonabar
published on 26 April 2012
A section of Hadrian's Wall near Carlisle.
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Palaestra in Tyre

by Wikipedia User: Heretiq
published on 26 April 2012
Columns of what is believed to be Palaestra (athletes' training area) at the Al Mina excavation area in Tyre.
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Map of Phoenicia

by Wikipedia user Kordas, based on Alvaro's work
published on 26 April 2012
A map of ancient Phoenicia, including important cities.
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Etruscan Civilization

by NormanEinstein
published on 26 April 2012
A map showing the extent of Etruria and the Etruscan civilization. The map includes the 12 cities of the Etruscan League and notable cities founded by the Etruscans. Based on a map from The National Geographic Magazine Vol.173 No.6 June 1988.
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Argolis

by Jan van der Crabben (Photographer)
published on 26 April 2012
Plain of the Argolis, as seen from Mycenae in Greece.
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Map of Ancient Athens

by Brockhaus Enzyklopädie 1901
published on 26 April 2012
A map of ancient Athens (with some text in German).
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Neo-Assyrian Empire

by Ningyou
published on 26 April 2012
Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its expansions.
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Phoenician Trade Network

by Akigka
published on 26 April 2012
Map of Phoenicia and its trade routes.
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Sennacherib

by Dbachmann
published on 26 April 2012
Sennacherib of Assyria (reigned 704 – 681 BC) during his Babylonian war, relief from his palace in Nineveh.
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Egyptian Cat

by Shadowgate
published on 26 April 2012
A Saite 26th Dynasty period (664-525 BC) bronze art work of an Egyptian cat playing with one of her kittens and feeding another. The goddess Bastet, which had a cat’s head, was one of the many gods in Egypt’s polytheistic religion and had her own temple in Bubastis, in the Nile delta. [Gulbekian Museum; Inv. No.21]
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Book of the Dead

by Jon Bodsworth
published on 26 April 2012
Weighing of the heart scene, with en:Ammit sitting, from the book of the dead of Hunefer.
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Roman Agora in Tyre

by Wikipedia User: Heretiq
published on 26 April 2012
Roman Agora (believed to be) at Al Mina excavation area.
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Plowing Egyptian Farmer

by Zenodot Verlagsgesellschaft mbH
published on 26 April 2012
circa. 1200 BCE Burial chamber of Sennedjem, Scene: Plowing farmer. "Sennedjem" plowing: (1st and 2nd column in front: "Behold"-(i+Crown), "plowing-by-Hand-(earth), in Osiris's House-Two Lands(of Egypt), col 2: "Sennedjem, ..."True of Voice")-The Plow hieroglyph is 'poor', or may have 'dual'(?) meanings-(equal to: "black"-(Kam-t)-Egypt(?)).
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Venus of Milo

by Jastrow
published on 26 April 2012
So-called “Venus de Milo” (Aphrodite from Melos). Parian marble, ca. 130-100 BC? Found in Melos in 1820. On display at the Louvre, Paris. Gift of the Marquis de Rivière to Louis XVIII of France, 1821
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The Royal Game of Ur

by Jan van der Crabben (Photographer)
published on 26 April 2012
The Royal Game of Ur, as exhibited in the British Museum, London. Early Dynastic III, about 2600 BC. Game boards of this type were found in at least six royal graves at Ur. They are made of wood, inlaid with carnelian, shell, and lapis lazuli (which was the most precious mineral at the time). This game was played all across the Ancient Near East for about 3000 years.
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King Ashurnasirpal II

by Jan van der Crabben (Photographer)
published on 26 April 2012
King Ashurnasipal II of Assyira (reigned 883 - 859 B.C.), flanked by eagle-headed protective spirits, of which only the left one is visible in this photo. From Nimrud, North-West Palace. Exhibited in the British Museum London.
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Cuneiform Writing

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 26 April 2012
A relief of cuneiform writing from Assyria. Exhibited in the British Museum London.
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Hadrian's Wall Gate

by phault
published on 26 April 2012
The North Gate of Housesteads Fort on Hadrian's Wall. Passport control, immigration control and customs check all in one place. The wall was a checkpoint for taxing cross-border trade as well as a defence.
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Greek Hoplite

by Johnny Shumate
published on 26 April 2012
Modern illustration of a 4th century BCE Greek hoplite.
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Augustus

by Original by Andreas Wahra, new version by Till Niermann
published on 26 April 2012
Augustus of Prima Porta, statue of the emperor Augustus in Museo Chiaramonti, Vatican, Rome.
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Hunting in the Marshes

by Georges Perrot
published on 08 October 2013
Hunting in the Marshes; from a bas-relief in the tomb of Ti. From "A history of art in ancient Egypt, Vol. I" (1883)
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Ammon

by Georges Perrot
published on 08 October 2013
Amen or Ammon, from a bronze in the Louvre. Height 22·04 inches. From "A history of art in ancient Egypt, Vol. I (of 2)" (1883).
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Ptah

by Georges Perrot
published on 08 October 2013
Ptah, from a bronze in the Louvre. From "A history of art in ancient Egypt, Vol. I (of 2)" (1883).
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Osiris

by Georges Perrot
published on 08 October 2013
Osiris, from a bronze in the Louvre. From A history of art in ancient Egypt, Vol. I by Georges Perrot and Charles Chipiez (1883).
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Julio-Claudian Family Tree

by Rursus
published on 29 October 2013
Family tree of Julio-Claudian Dynasty producing 5 emperors at the start of the Roman Empire (27 BCE - 68 CE).
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Nymph with scoprion

by Ricardo André Frantz
published on 29 October 2013
Nymph with scoprion. Marble, commissioned by Prince Charles de Beauvau, exhibited at the 1845 Salon. Lorenzo Bartolini (1777-1850). Louvre Museum, Department of Sculptures, ground floor, room 4
Encyclopedia Definition

Stone Age

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric time period during which humans widely used stone for toolmaking. Stone tools were made from a variety of different kinds of stone. For example, flint and chert were shaped (or chipped) for use as cutting tools and weapons, while basalt and sandstone were used for ground stone tools, such as quern-stones. Wood, bone, shell... [continue reading]
Article

The provisioning of the Ten Thousand

by Alice Lang
published on 27 April 2012
Imagine finding yourself and a group of thousands of fellow citizens stranded in the middle of a strange country, thousands of kilometres away from home. You have just lost your military leader in a battle. You have no provisions and little hope of finding any. There are no maps available and none of you have knowledge as to what type of terrain... [continue reading]
Article
The issue of perspective is intrinsic to historiography. This is evident in the ancient Greco-Roman literary record, specifically the limits placed on its value to modern academics by the ethnographic biases of its authors. However, with the rise of the post-processual approach to archaeology over the past thirty years, modern historians have begun... [continue reading]
Article

The Athenian Ephebeia in the Lycurgan Period: 334/3-322/1 BC

by John Lennard Friend
published on 17 September 2012
This dissertation examines the origin, purpose, and function of the Athenian ephebeia during the Lycurgan period (334/3-322/1 B.C.). The ephebeia, a compulsory two-year long state-funded and organized program of military service for eighteen and nineteen year old citizens called ephebes, did not exist as a formal institution prior to 334/3 B.C., the... [continue reading]
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Archimedes

by Domenico Fetti
published on 31 October 2013
Archimedes Thoughtful, painted 1620 CE in Mantua by Domenico Fetti (1588–1623). Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden, Germany.
Article
By the late fourth century BCE Rome had conquered much of modern day Italy and was a maturing power in the Mediterranean. In the First Punic War (264-241) Rome defeated Carthage and acquired Sicily as its first overseas province. The late third century saw Rome again at war against Carthage and the two powers vied for control of the Mediterranean on... [continue reading]
Article
“Touching the Gods: physical interaction with cult statues in the Roman world‟ explores different forms of physical interaction with cult statues in the many cults and beliefs evident across the Roman world, and proposes wide-ranging implications of this for the understanding of Roman religions and Roman art. Despite the theoretical detachment... [continue reading]
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Caesar in Gaul

by The Creative Assembly / SEGA
published on 03 December 2013
Artist's impression of how Caesar and his army marching through Gaul may have looked like. This is a marketing picture for the Rome II: Total War DLC "Caesar in Gaul".
Article

Roman Interpretations of the Amazons through Literature and Art

by Erin W. Leal
published on 22 March 2012
Modern historians and classicists have studied the ancient Greeks’ use of Amazon mythology extensively and exhaustively. Their analysis of the Amazon in literature and artwork has contributed to a better understanding of Greek society, culture, and the mindset of those ancient people. Next to nothing, however, has been written about the ancient Romans&rsquo... [continue reading]
Article

Around the Roman world in 180 days

by Beryl Mary Screen
published on 09 May 2012
The dissertation is intended to show whether it is possible for a Roman traveller to make a journey around the Roman world in the year C.E. 210, within 180 days, in a manner similar to that of Phileas Fogg, a character in Jules Verne’s novel Around the World in Eighty Days (1874). The Roman’s 180-day adventure to complete the journey within... [continue reading]
Article
Production of beer in ancient Egypt was an important daily activity. Beer was an essential part of the nutrition of the ancient Egyptian as well as important in religious life. Beer production dates back to at least the 35th century BC. The standard model for the production of beer in ancient Egypt is based on the interpretation of artistic depictions... [continue reading]
Article

Emperor Qin in the Afterlife

by Jennifer Wolff
published on 16 April 2012
Of the many great archaeological finds in the 20th century, one of the grandest is the discovery of Emperor Qin Shihuangdi’s terracotta army. The ruler of the state of Qin, King Cheng, proclaimed himself the First Emperor of China in 221 BC taking the name Shihuangdi (first sovereign). After hundreds of years of open warfare between the different... [continue reading]
Article

The Menelaion: A Local Manifestation of a Pan-Hellenic Phenomenon

by De Armond, Thea
published on 13 December 2012
In his New History, the second century CE grammarian Ptolemy Chennos (also called Ptolemy Hephaestion) alleges that over two dozen celebrated women named Helen lived at the time of the Trojan War. These women include a painter, a woman who ate three dogs a day, and a woman from whom Homer took his account of the Trojan War. The New History of Ptolemy... [continue reading]
Article

Roman Acculturation of Indigenous Customs in Western Europe

by Jamie L. Hoen
published on 25 April 2012
This paper explores the acculturation of customs native to the people of Western Europe by Roman soldiers and citizens living on the frontier. This paper examines who these indigenous people were and focuses on their development from the middle of the fifth century BCE until several centuries after Roman conquest. There is an emphasis on the unique challenges... [continue reading]
Article

A worthy warrior queen: perceptions of Zenobia in ancient Rome

by Gayle Young
published on 22 July 2012
In the year 274, Romans witnessed what the Historia Augusta described as a “most brilliant spectacle” — a triumph on a lavish scale not seen in a generation. The Emperor Aurelian, rode through the city streets of Rome in a magnificent chariot said to have belonged to the king of the Goths, pulled by four matching white stags and followed... [continue reading]
Article

Independent Colonies Emerge into Flourishing Independent City-States

by Betcher, Daniel ( Illinois Wesleyan University)
published on 30 September 2012
Did Greek city-states create colonies in the ancient world in order to expand their sphere of influence? If the answer is yes, then why did one of these colonies break away from its mother-city in order to better itself? The answer is a complicated one and is subject to analysis on both a macro and micro level. The primary example of a colony that found... [continue reading]
Article
Most mental maps of the Roman world center on the Mediterranean basin. At the empire’s heart lies the “Eternal City,” with the edges of this mental map forming the limits of direct Roman political control. This conception of the Roman Empire is not, however, always the most useful way of thinking about the Roman world. Indeed, a Mediterranean-centered... [continue reading]
Article

Greek Knowledge of India Before the 4th Century BC

by Solomou, Stavros
published on 19 January 2012
When Alexander the Great marched over to India towards the end of the 4th century B.C. and incorporated a section of this country in his Empire, it was not the first time that the ancient Greeks were learning about this part of the world, for they had known quite a lot about it already from centuries before. Indian words for various products from that country... [continue reading]
Article

Gods and Places in Etruscan Religion

by Ingrid Edlund-Berry, The University of Texas at Austin
published on 27 November 2011
The ancient Romans took every precaution in their prayers or rituals to ensure that their deities were addressed by name or generically as a divine spirit, or numen. In many matters of ritual and tradition they acknowledged their dependence on Etruscan practices, Etrusca disciplina. The Etruscans were known for their interpretation of signs such as lightning... [continue reading]
Article

King Hammurabi of Babylon

by Jack M. Sasson
published on 23 April 2012
According to his own testimony, Hammurabi (Hammurapi) was destined for kingship since time immemorial, when two powerful gods, Anu and Enlil, entrusted to a third god, Marduk, control over destiny, on Earth as in heaven. At that time, too, the gods set Babylon above all other lands, and its rule was made everlasting. Here is how Hammurabi describes himself... [continue reading]
Article

Roman Agricultural Magic

by Britta K. Ager
published on 19 April 2012
In this dissertation, I examine the magical practices of Roman farmers, primarily through the Latin farming manuals; topics include the magical practices which the Roman agronomists recommend to farmers, the relationship of this material to other genres of magic such as curses and amulets, and how its inclusion in technical handbooks is part of the authors&rsquo... [continue reading]
Article

Other-Centred Love: Diotima’s lesson to Socrates

by Colin A. Redmond
published on 21 November 2011
In this thesis I set out to determine the possible motivations in response to which Diotima agreed to teach Socrates the arts of love. In the process I develop a broader understanding of Diotima and her natural, feminine complexity. This understanding of Diotima suggests an interpretation of her teaching to show that, for all that can be said of love... [continue reading]
Article

Stonehenge and its people: thoughts from medicine

by Anthony M. Perks
published on 04 June 2012
This paper considers the nature of Stonehenge and other Neolithic sites from an unusual perspective, that of medicine. At Stonehenge, the finish and pattern of the stones suggest that the trilithons represent the parents of the past, while the overall layout symbolizes Earth Mother, the Mother Goddess. Concern for this deity probably reflects the enormous... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Agriculture

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
Identifying an exact origin of agriculture remains problematic because the transition from hunter-gatherer societies began thousands of years before the invention of writing. It isn't until after 9,500 BCE that the eight so-called founder crops of agriculture appear: first emmer and einkorn wheat, then hulled barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chick... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Trade

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
Trade is believed to have taken place throughout much of recorded human history. There is evidence of the exchange of obsidian and flint during the Stone Age. Materials used for creating jewelry were traded with Egypt since 3000 BCE. Long-range trade routes first appeared in the 3rd millennium BCE, when Sumerians in Mesopotamia traded with the Harappan civilization... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Pottery

by Wikipedia
published on 03 August 2011
Pottery is the material from which the potteryware is made, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. The place where such wares are made is also called a pottery (plural "potteries"). Pottery is made by forming the clay body into objects of a required shape and heating them to high temperatures in a kiln to induce reactions... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Bronze Age

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
The Bronze Age is the second part of the three-age system (Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age) for classifying and studying prehistoric societies, particularly the ancient societies of the Mediterranean and Near East. More broadly, the Bronze Age of any culture is the period during which the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Neolithic Period

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 9500 BC in the Middle East that is traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age. The Neolithic followed the terminal Holocene Epipalaeolithic periods, beginning with the rise of farming, which produced the "Neolithic Revolution"... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Bronze

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
Bronze was significant to any culture that encountered it. It was one of the most innovative alloys of mankind. Tools, weapons, armour, and various building materials like decorative tiles made of bronze were harder and more durable than their stone and copper ("Chalcolithic") predecessors. Initially bronze was made out of copper and arsenic to... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Alphabet

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 28 April 2011
The history of the alphabet started in ancient Egypt. By 2700 BCE Egyptian writing had a set of some 22 hieroglyphs to represent syllables that begin with a single consonant of their language, plus a vowel (or no vowel) to be supplied by the native speaker. These glyphs were used as pronunciation guides for logograms, to write grammatical inflections, and... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Early Dynastic Period (Egypt)

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
The historical records of ancient Egypt begin with Egypt as a unified state, which occurred sometime around 3150 BCE. According to Egyptian tradition Menes, thought to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt, was the first king. This Egyptian culture, customs, art expression, architecture, and social structure was closely tied to religion, remarkably... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Empire

by Atlas of Empires
published on 02 September 2009
An empire is a political construct in which one state dominates over another state, or a series of states. At its heart, an empire is ruled by an emperor, even though many states in history without an emperor at their head are called "empires". At its core, an empire is the domination of one state by another. This idea lies at the heart... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Ashurnasirpal II

by British Museum
published on 03 August 2011
Ashurnasirpal II, King of Assyria (883-859 BCE), whose name (Ashur-nasir-apli) means, 'the god Ashur is the protector of the heir', came to the Assyrian throne in 883 BCE. He was one of a line of energetic kings whose campaigns brought Assyria great wealth and established it as one of the Near East's major powers. Ashurnasirpal mounted... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Celt

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
The historical Celts were a diverse group of tribal societies in Iron Age Europe. Proto-Celtic culture formed in the Early Iron Age in Central Europe (Hallstatt period, named for the site in present-day Austria). By the later Iron Age (La Tène period), Celts had expanded over a wide range of lands: as far west as Ireland and the Iberian Peninsula... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Assyria

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 28 April 2011
Assyria was a Mesopotamian empire that grew out of the city-state of Ashur. It was one of the greatest empires in Mesopotamia, together with the Akkadian Empire of Sargon the Great and the Babylonian Empire under Hammurabi. At its height, the Assyrian Empire extended from Anatolia in the west, to Armenia in the... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Peloponnese

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος) is a large peninsula and region in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. The peninsula has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Its modern name derives from ancient Greek mythology, specifically the legend of the hero Pelops who was said to have conquered... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Hittite

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
The Hittites were an ancient Anatolian people who spoke a language of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa on the central Anatolian plateau in the 18th century BCE. The Hittite Empire reached its height around 1285 BCE, encompassing a large part of Anatolia, north-western Syria about as... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Iron Age

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
In archaeology, the Iron Age was the stage in the development of any people in which tools and weapons whose main ingredient was iron were prominent. The adoption of this material often coincided with other changes in society, including differing agricultural practices, religious beliefs and artistic styles. In history, the Iron Age is the last principal period... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Phrygia

by Livius
published on 28 April 2011
Phrygia was an ancient nation in western Turkey with its capital at Gordium. Compared to several other nations in Anatolia, the Phrygians were newcomers. Although their language has to be reconstructed from names, quotes, and a mere 350 inscriptions, and is consequently not very well-known, it is certain that it is related to the languages of the southern Balkan... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Levant

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 28 April 2011
Levant is the name applied widely to the eastern Mediterranean coastal lands of Asia Minor and Phoenicia (modern-day Turkey, Syria, and Lebanon). In a wider sense, the term can be used to encompass the entire coastline from Greece to Egypt. The Levant is part for the Fertile Crescent and was home to some of the ancient Mediterranean trade centers, such as Ugarit... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Jerusalem

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
Jerusalem is an ancient city located in ancient Judah that is now the capital of Israel. The city has a history that goes back to the 4th millennium BCE, making it one of the oldest cities in the world. It is the holiest city in Judaism and Christianity and has been the spiritual center of the Jewish people since c. 1000 BCE, when David the King of Israel... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Mediterranean

by Wikipedia
published on 20 January 2011
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Anatolia and Europe, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant. The sea is technically a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a completely separate... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Etruscan

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to the culture and way of life of a people of ancient Italy and Corsica whom the ancient Romans called Etrusci or Tusci. The origins of the Etruscans are lost in prehistory. The main hypotheses are that they are indigenous, probably stemming from the Villanovan culture, or that they are the result... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Italy

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula is one of the three peninsulas of Southern Europe (the other two being the Iberian Peninsula and Balkan Peninsula), spanning 1,000 km from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. The peninsula is bordered by the Tyrrhenian Sea on the west, the Ionian Sea on the south, and the Adriatic... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Sicily

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
Sicily is both the largest region of the modern state of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Its central location and natural resources ensured that it has been considered a crucial strategic location due in large part to its importance for Mediterranean trade routes. The area was highly regarded as part of Magna Graecia, with Cicero describing... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Africa

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
When people spoke of Africa in ancient times, they generally meant the northern coast of Africa, and more specifically the coast west of Egypt (Cyrenaica and the Maghreb). The ancients vaguely knew of the existance of sub-Saharan Africa, but were unaware of its geography. Despite its location in Africa, Egypt never expanded westwards. The expanse of... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Achaean League

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
The Achaean League (Greek: κοινὸν τῶν Ἀχαιῶν) was a Hellenistic era confederation of Greek city states on the northern and central Peloponnese, which existed between 280 BCE and 146 BCE. The league was named after the region of Achaea. The regional Achaean League was reformed in 281/0... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Kassite

by British Museum
published on 03 August 2011
It is thought that the Kassites originated as tribal groups in the Zagros Mountains to the north-east of Babylonia. Their leaders came to power in Babylon following the collapse of the ruling dynasty of the Old Babylonian Period in 1595 BC. The Kassites retained power for about four hundred years (until 1155 BC). There is very little evidence for serious... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Elam

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
Elam was an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Knowledge of Elamite history remains largely fragmentary, reconstruction being based on mainly Mesopotamian sources. The city of Susa was founded around 5000 BCE, and during its early history, fluctuated between submission to Mesopotamian and Elamite power. The earliest Elamite sites... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Media

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
The Medes, (Greek Μῆδοι, from an Old Persian ماد Mādai) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. This area is known as Media (also Medea; Greek Μηδία, Old Persian Māda; the English adjective is Median, antiquated also Medean). They entered this region with the first wave of Iranian tribes, in... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Lydia

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
Lydia arose as a Neo-Hittite kingdom following the collapse of the Hittite Empire in the twelfth century BC. According to Greek sources, the original name of the Lydian kingdom was Maionia. Herodotus relates that that the "Maiones" were renamed Lydians after their king, Lydus (Greek: Λυδός), son of Attis, in the mythical epoch that preceded the rise of... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Bactria

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 28 April 2011
Bactria was a province of the Persian empire located in modern Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. After the defeat of Darius III of Persia, Bactria continued to offer resistance against Alexander the Great, led by Bessus, who had proclaimed himself successor to Darius. Alexander conquered it with great difficulty between 329-327 BCE, largely with... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Cambyses II

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
Cambyses II was the son of Cyrus the Great and King of Persia from 530 BCE to 522 BCE. It was quite natural that, after Cyrus had conquered the Middle East, Cambyses should undertake the conquest of Egypt, the only remaining independent state in that part of the world. Before he set out on his expedition, he killed his brother Bardiya (Smerdis... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Cyrus II

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
Cyrus II (reign: 559-530 BCE), also known as Cyrus the Great, was the founder of the Persian empire. When he became king, Persia was a client state of the empire of the Medes. Cyrus revolted, conquered the Median capital Ecbatana and deposed the king of the Medes, Astyages. Throughout his reign he conquered Babylon, Lydia, and the Greek cities of Asia Minor... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Achaemenid Empire

by Atlas of Empires
published on 11 February 2011
East of the Zagros Mountains, a high plateau stretches off towards India. While Egypt was rising up against the Hyksos, a wave of pastoral tribes from north of the Caspian Sea was drifting down into this area and across into India. By the time the Assyrians had built their new empire, a second wave had covered the whole stretch between the Zagros... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Delian League

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
The Delian League was an association of approximately 150 5th-century BCE Greek city-states under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Greco–Persian Wars. Founded in 478 BCE, the League's name derives from its official meeting... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Philip II

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
Philip II of Macedon 382 – 336 BC, was a Greek king of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination in 336. He was the father of Alexander the Great and Philip III. Born in Pella, Philip was the youngest son of the king Amyntas III and Eurydice I. n his youth, (c. 368–365 BC) Philip was held as a hostage in Thebes, which was the leading city of Greece during... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Darius III

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
Darius III was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BCE to 330 BCE. It was under his rule that the Persian Empire was conquered during the Wars of Alexander the Great. Artaxerxes III of Persia and all of his sons except one, Arses, were killed off through the assassination plots of a vizier named Bagoas, who installed Arses... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Syria

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
The area designated by the word has changed over time. Classically, Syria lies at the eastern end of the Mediterranean, between Egypt and Arabia to the south and Cilicia to the north, stretching inland to include Mesopotamia, and having an uncertain border to the northeast that Pliny the Elder describes as including, from west to east, Commagene, Sophene... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Parthian Empire

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire (Persian: اشکانیان) after the eponymous founder, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in the Ancient Near East. It was founded in the mid-3rd century BC by Arsaces I of Parthia, leader of the Parni tribe, when he conquered the Parthia region ("roughly... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Hannibal

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
Hannibal, son of Hamilcar Barca, (248–183 or 182 BC), commonly known as Hannibal was a Carthaginian military commander and tactician who is popularly credited as one of the most talented commanders in history. His father Hamilcar Barca was the leading Carthaginian commander during the First Punic War. Hannibal lived during a period of tension in the Mediterranean... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Coinage

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 28 April 2011
Coins were introduced as a method of payment around the 6th or 5th century BCE. The invention of coins is still shrouded in mystery: According to Herdotous (I, 94), coins were first minted by the Lydians, while Aristotle claims that the first coins were minted by Demodike of Kyrme, the wife of King Midas of Phrygia. Numismatists consider that the first coins... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Medicine

by Wikipedia
published on 05 August 2011
Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. All human societies have medical beliefs that provide explanations for birth, death, and disease. Throughout history, illness has been attributed to witchcraft, demons, adverse... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Sennacherib

by British Museum
published on 03 August 2011
Sennacherib, king of Assyria (704-681 BC), whose name (Sin-ahhe-criba) means 'the god Sin has replaced the brothers', came to the throne of Assyria in 704 BC. The new king shifted the capital from Dur-Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad) to the ancient city of Nineveh, which he rebuilt in unparalleled splendour. This great palace, which Sennacherib describes... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Aleppo

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
Aleppo is a city in northern modern-day Syria. The ancient name of Aleppo, Halab, is of obscure origin. Some have proposed that Halab means 'iron' or 'copper' in Amorite languages since it was a major source of these metals in antiquity. Halaba in Aramaic means white, referring to the color of soil and marble abundant in the area. Another proposed... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Battle of Chaeronea

by Livius
published on 02 September 2009
The Battle of Chaeronea (338 BCE) was a decisive battle in which king Philip II of Macedonia overcame Athens and Thebes, which meant, essentially the end of Greek independence. The war between the Greek city states and Macedonia became inevitable when, in 340 BCE, King Philip of Macedonia was besieging Perinthus --on the west bank of the... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Roman Republic

by Wikipedia
published on 28 April 2011
The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilisation characterised by a republican form of government. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, c. 509 BC, and lasted over 450 years until its subversion in 29 BC, through a series of civil wars, into the Principate form of government and the Imperial period. The Roman Republic... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Migration Age

by Wikipedia
published on 15 July 2010
The Migration Period, also called the Barbarian Invasions or German: Völkerwanderung (wandering of the peoples), was a period of human migration that occurred roughly between AD 300 to 700 in Europe, marking the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages. These movements were catalyzed by profound changes within both the Roman Empire and... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Indo-Saka

by Wikipedia
published on 17 December 2010
The Indo-Saka or Indo-Scythians are commonly thought to have been a branch of Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 4th century CE. The first Saka king in Pakistan and India was Maues or Moga who established... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Baal

by Livius
published on 03 August 2011
Ba'al (Hebrew בעל, Ba'l, "lord"; Greek Βήλος) was the title of several Canaanite deities. The word "Ba'al" can be translated as "lord", "owner", "master", or "husband", and referred to a group of deities venerated in the Levant. Some of these deities... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Esarhaddon

by British Museum
published on 03 August 2011
Esarhaddon was King of Assyria from 680 to 669 BC. 'Esharhaddon' is a modern reading of the name, Ashur-ahu-iddina ('the god Ashur has given a brother'). His father, Sennacherib, was assassinated by two other sons, whom Esarhaddon had to fight for the throne. The successful son reaped the rewards of Sennacherib's hard-won successes... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Byzantine Empire

by Livius
published on 28 April 2011
Byzantine Empire was the successor of the Roman Empire in the Greek-speaking, eastern part of the Mediterranean. Christian in nature, it was perennially at war with the Muslims, Flourishing during the reign of the Macedonian emperors, its demise was the consequence of attacks by Seljuk Turks, Crusaders, and Ottoman Turks. Byzantium was the name... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Ammon (Deity)

by Livius
published on 03 August 2011
Ammon is the name of a Libyan deity and his oracle in the desert. It became famous after Alexander the Great made a detour to consult the god. The modern name is Siwa. Ammon was a Libyan deity, whose oracle was situated in the Siwa oasis, some 500 km west of Memphis, the capital of ancient Egypt. The oasis was also called Ammon. The Egyptians identified... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Pasargadae

by Livius
published on 28 April 2011
Pasargadae was one of the oldest residences of the Achaemenid kings, founded by Cyrus the Great (r.559-530). It resembled a park of 2x3 km in which several monumental buildings were to be seen. According to the Roman geographer Strabo of Amasia, the palace of Pasargadae was built on the site where king Cyrus (r.559-530) defeated the leader of the Medes, Astyages... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Pepper

by Wikipedia
published on 09 December 2010
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. Peppercorns were a much prized trade good... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Lutetia

by Livius
published on 15 February 2011
Lutetia Parisiorum was the capital of the Parisii, a tribe in ancient Gaul. The Parisii were a tribe on the Middle Seine, and Lutetia ("place near a swamp") was one of their main settlements. It was on the south bank of the river. In 53 BCE, the Roman general Julius Caesar used Lutetia, which had probably been founded in the mid-third century BCE, as place... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Amenhotep III

by British Museum
published on 15 July 2011
Amenhotep III, King of Egypt (1390-1352 BCE) was the son and successor of Thutmose IV. The supposed divine nature of his birth is represented in a series of reliefs inside the Luxor Temple. He inherited a vast empire, stretching from Syria to the Fifth Cataract of the Nile in Sudan, maintained through trade and diplomacy. Several of his wives... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Tiye

by Wikipedia
published on 18 July 2011
Tiye (c. 1398 BCE – 1338 BCE, also spelled Taia, Tiy and Tiyi) was the daughter of Yuya and Tjuyu (also spelled Thuyu). She became the Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep III. Tiye's father, Yuya, was a wealthy landowner from the Upper Egyptian town of Akhmin, where he served as a priest and superintendent of oxen. Tiye's mother... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia)

by British Museum
published on 03 August 2011
Southern Mesopotamia was divided between competing city-states during the period 2900-2300 BCE. This so-called Early Dynastic period has three subdivisions based on archaeological finds made by the Oriental Institute of Chicago in the area of the Diyala, east of modern Baghdad. Early Dynastic I (around 2900-2800 BCE) saw the emergence... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Trapezus

by Livius
published on 04 November 2011
Trapezus (Greek: Τραπεζοῦς) was a Greek city on the southern shore of the Black Sea, modern Trabzon. According to the Christian author Eusebius, writing more than a millennium after the event, Trapezus was founded in 756 BCE, in the country that was called Colchis. Its first settlers were from Sinope (Xenophon... [continue reading]
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The Last Supper

by Escarlati
published on 26 November 2013
The Last Supper, oil on panel (c. 1562) by Joan de Joanes (1510–1579). Prado Museum.
Article

The Influence of Hannibal of Carthage on The Art of War

by Messer, Rick Jay
published on 05 January 2012
This paper examines the influence of Hannibal of Carthage on the art of war over time. Hannibal’s war with Rome provides a complex example of strategic and tactical successes and failures that have been modeled and studied throughout military history in one fashion or another. The method of research was a literature review organized into chapters... [continue reading]
Article

On War and Games in the Ancient World

by T.J. Cornell
published on 12 March 2013
That there is a connection between warfare and sport is evident enough. Competitive games, in the form of contests between individuals or teams, imitate war in a more or less conscious manner. This fact is most obviously reflected in the language of sport. When sports writers use terms like catastrophe, tragedy, massacre, or annihilation, people sometimes... [continue reading]
Article

Sports Sites in Ancient Anatolia: Stadiums

by Erdoğan Ş., Atalay M., Yoruç Çotuk M.
published on 05 March 2012
Today we have much evidence that modern Sports Culture has its roots in Ancient Olympic Games. Many excavations are held by archaeologists to understand the idea of sport as the ancient world’s culture by searching Ancient Olympia. However there are many ancient stadiums and maybe many more are waiting to come into daylight all over the world, where... [continue reading]
Article

Shamanic elements in Minoan religion

by Christine Morris and Alan Peatfield
published on 19 March 2012
Ritual has always been a popular subject of study in archaeology and anthropology. Early ethnographers relished the details of its drama, and early archaeologists found it a convenient explanation for those finds they could not explain. More sophisticated modern scholars ponder the symbolic complexity of its action, and debate its social function. And... [continue reading]
Article
The history of Jewish Christianity is a very tragic one. During the first few years of its existence, it enjoyed an enormous growth in numbers, both in Jerusalem and in the rest of Judaea and Samaria. The early Jewish Christians of the Jerusalem Church were respected both by their countrymen and by the Gentiles of the churches founded by Paul in Asia Minor... [continue reading]
Article

Wine and Wealth in Ancient Italy

by Nicholas Purcell
published on 04 May 2012
This account of viticulture in Italy during the period from the Punic Wars to the crisis of the third century AD is written in the conviction that the ‘economic’ history of the ancient world will remain unacceptably impoverished if it is written in isolation from the social and cultural history of the same period. The orthodoxy which sees... [continue reading]
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The Temple of Isis on Philae Island

by Vasily Polenov
published on 06 January 2014
Painting by Vasily Polenov (1882). Oil on canvas. Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia.
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Baalbek

by Vasily Polenov
published on 06 January 2014
Ruins of Jupiter Cathedral and Cathedral of Sun. Painting by Vasily Polenov (1882).
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Parthenon

by Vasily Polenov
published on 06 January 2014
Temple of Athena Parthénos. Painting by Vasily Polenov, c. 1882.
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Sea of Galilee

by Vasily Polenov
published on 06 January 2014
Painting by Vasily Polenov, 1899.
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Colossi of Memnon

by Vasily Polenov
published on 06 January 2014
Statue of Amenhotep III. Painting by Vasily Polenov (date unknown).
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Greek Woman

by Thomas Hope
published on 13 January 2014
Grecian Female from a fictile vase.
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Gallic Wars

by The Creative Assembly
published on 21 January 2014
This artistic 3D scene shows how fighting between the Roman and the Gauls may have looked during Julius Caesar's campaigns in Gaul (58 to 50 BCE).
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Siege of Alesia

by The Creative Assembly
published on 21 January 2014
This is an artistic 3D model of how the Battle of Alesia may have looked. In this decisive Roman victory (September 52 BCE), Julius Caesar defeated the Arverni leader Vercingetorix, completing the Roman conquest of Gaul.
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Battle of Teutoburg Forest

by The Creative Assembly
published on 23 January 2014
This is an artistic 3D impression how how the Battle of Teutoburg Forest (September, 9 CE) may have looked like. Germanic tribesmen led by Arminius wear down the Roman column, as its general Varus is trying to lead it back to safety. The engagement ended in a crushing Roman defeat.
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Wooden model of a man ploughing with oxen

by Trustees of the British Museum
published on 29 January 2014
From Egypt Middle Kingdom, about 2040-1750 BC An ancient Egyptian farmer at work This model was originally placed in a tomb. Models showing various stages in the production of food were placed in wealthy burials of the Middle Kingdom (about 2040-1750 BC) to guarantee that the deceased would have food for eternity. The first stage of the process was ploughing... [continue reading]
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A Young Girl Defending Herself Against Eros

by Adolphe William Bouguereau
published on 29 January 2014
A nude girl sits in an ancient landscape, trying to push away Eros / Cupid, the god of love, who is holding an arrow. Nevertheless, she is smiling, suggesting that she might not really want to prevent him from hitting her with the arrow of love. Adolphe William Bouguereau French, about 1880 Oil on canvas 31 1/4 x 21 5/8 in. 70.PA.3 Getty Museum
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Parthian Camel Cataphracts

by The Creative Assembly
published on 14 February 2014
This is an artist's illustration of how Parthian camel cataphracts may have looked like in combat against Roman legionaries.
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Artemisia of Caria

by Warner Bros. & Legendary Pictures
published on 12 March 2014
Artemisia I of Caria as depicted in the fictional Hollywood movie 300: Rise of an Empire, played by Eva Green. This depiction is a modern cinematic representation of the character and does not reflect the historical Artemisia. This movie still is a promotional image for the movie, given to the press.
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Ponce Monolith, Tiwanaku

by Dennis Jarvis
published on 15 March 2014
The monumental stone statue from Tiwanaku, Bolivia, known as the Ponce Monolith. Such statues perhaps represented the race of stone giants which first populated the world in pan-Andean mythology. Gold pins and traces of piant indicate they were once clothed in textiles and decorated with bright colours. The statue is 3.5 metres tall and dates to c. 300 CE.
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Map of the Roman Empire, 350 CE

by Poole, Reginald Lane, 1857-1939
published on 19 March 2014
A map of the Roman Empire, circa 350 CE, showing its Dioceses, the administrative divisions of the late Roman Empire. The diocese was introduced by emperor Diocletian to supplant the province as administrative unit of the empire.
Video

Digging History 8: The Regal Period

by WEDIGROME
published on 28 March 2014
The regal period largely coincides with the Archaic period, for Rome's development. Of course, a lot was going in what would develop into Rome before the famed foundation date of 753 BC (which was debated by ancient historians nevertheless). The 8th and 7th centuries are known as the Iron Age and Orientalizing period and were marked by shared and overlapping... [continue reading]
Video

Making Garum at Home

by Past Preservers
published on 25 March 2014
Charlie Mecklenburgh makes Garum at home. She is currently assisting with the on-going excavation and preservation of Ice Age fossil deposits at the La Brea tar pits in Los Angeles, California. Charlie Mecklenburgh is currently assisting with the on-going excavation and preservation of Ice Age fossil deposits at the La Brea tar pits in Los Angeles, California.
Video

Digging History 7: The Architecture and Engineering of Rome

by WEDIGROME
published on 25 March 2014
The Romans began building with local materials, wood, clay, and tuff (see Episode 3 for local materials and geology of the city). There are many sources from antiquity, but a good place to start is with the writings of Vitruvius (on architecture) and Frontinus (on aqueducts: De Aqueductibus Urbis Romae). Vitruvius' 10 Books of Architecture is a work that became... [continue reading]
Video

Digging History 8: The Regal Period

by WEDIGROME
published on 25 March 2014
The regal period largely coincides with the Archaic period, for Rome's development. Of course, a lot was going in what would develop into Rome before the famed foundation date of 753 BC (which was debated by ancient historians nevertheless). The 8th and 7th centuries are known as the Iron Age and Orientalizing period and were marked by shared and overlapping... [continue reading]
Video

Digging History 9: The Roman Republic

by WEDIGROME
published on 25 March 2014
Video on the Roman Republic produced by the American Institute for Roman Culture.
Video

Digging History 10: The Late Republic

by WEDIGROME
published on 25 March 2014
Video on the Late Roman Republic produced by the American Institute for Roman Culture.
Video

Artemision Zeus or Poseidon, c. 460 B.C.E.

by Smarthistory, Art History at Khan Academy
published on 25 March 2014
Artemision Zeus or Poseidon, c. 460 B.C.E., bronze, 2.09 m high, Early Classical (Severe Style), recovered from a shipwreck off Cape Artemision, Greece (National Archaeological Museum, Athens) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker
Video

Basilica of Constantine, Rome, c. 306-312

by Smarthistory, Art History at Khan Academy
published on 25 March 2014
A conversation with Dr. Darius Arya and Dr. Beth Harris at the Basilica of Constantine, Rome, c. 306-312
Video

Legionary Kit

by thecreativeassembly
published on 26 March 2014
U.S. Army Special Forces 'Green Beret' combat veteran, Discovery Channel presenter and survivalist Mykel Hawke takes a look at the kind of equipment every Roman legionary was sent to war with over 1,500 years ago. How does it stack up to military standards today? In this documentary short for Total War: ROME II, Hawke discovers exactly the sort of kit... [continue reading]
Video

The Throwing War

by thecreativeassembly
published on 26 March 2014
It wasn't all stabbing and slicing in ancient combat, during battle the air was often dark with thrown projectiles of various deadly natures. Taking a look at some of the man and machine-powered missile armaments of the Roman period is shouter's favourite BRIAN BLESSED! - in this short film to mark the release week of Total War: ROME II. With the... [continue reading]
Video

Assyrian Relief from the Palace of Ashurnasirpal II

by Emory University
published on 03 April 2014
Monique Seefried, consulting curator of Near Eastern Art at the Michael C. Carlos Museum, describes this stone palace wall relief panel of an Assyrian winged deity from the Palace of Ashurnasirpal II (reigned 883-859 BCE) from the ancient city of Nimrud, capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, in present-day Iraq. It is north of Baghdad, 21 miles SE of Mosul.
Video

The Trojan War ("Tainted Love" by Soft Cell)

by historyteachers
published on 28 March 2014
Sorry, no Brad Pitt or Orlando Bloom, just Mrs. B and some black figure art.
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Livy’s Roman History, 1664

by Andy Brill
published on 31 March 2014
Historiarum ab Urbe Condita. - The complete history of Rome and its Urban Foundation -from its foundation to Augustine- by Titus Livius Patavina (59 BC – AD 17). Latin text. Edited with extensive commentary by Joannes Frederick Gronovius. The first complete account of early Roman history. Published by Ludovic & Daniels at the Elsevier Press, Amsterdam... [continue reading]
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Map of Ancient Georgian States (600-150 BCE)

by Deu
published on 31 March 2014
Map showing the ancient states in the western Caucasus (modern-day Georgia) from c. 600 BCE to 150 BCE.
Video

Anavysos Kouros, c. 530 B.C.E.

by Smarthistory, Art History at Khan Academy
published on 01 April 2014
Anavysos Kouros, c. 530 B.C.E., marble, 6' 4" (National Archaeological Museum, Athens) Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker & Dr. Beth Harris
Video

82nd & Fifth: "Snapshot" by Marsha Hill

by The Metropolitan Museum of Art
published on 01 April 2014
http://82nd-and-fifth.metmuseum.org/snapshot Explore this object: http://82nd-and-fifth.metmuseum.org/statue-of-two-men-and-a-boy-that-served-as-a-domestic-icon-egypt-11.150.21 "You start saying, 'Who were they, and what are their personalities?'" 82nd & Fifth invites 100 curators from across the Museum to talk about 100 works of art that changed the way they see the world.
Video

Babylonian Bricks (82nd & Fifth)

by The Metropolitan Museum of Art
published on 03 April 2014
http://82nd-and-fifth.metmuseum.org/bricks Explore this object: http://82nd-and-fifth.metmuseum.org/two-panels-with-striding-lions-babylonian-31.13.1-.2 "It always had this possibility to come alive in a very real sense." 82nd & Fifth invites 100 curators from across the Museum to talk about 100 works of art that changed the way they see the world.
Video

The Cyrus Cylinder from Ancient Babylon and the Beginning of the Persian Empire

by The Metropolitan Museum of Art
published on 03 April 2014
Lecture by Dr. John E. Curtis, OBE, FBA, Keeper of Special Middle East Projects, The British Museum. Introduction by Joan Aruz, Curator in Charge, Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art at The Metropolitan Museum of Art. This program is presented with the exhibition The Cyrus Cylinder and Ancient Persia: Charting a New Empire. Thursday, June 20, 2013 © The Metropolitan Museum of Art
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82nd & Fifth: "Monsters" by Kiki Karaglou

by The Metropolitan Museum of Art
published on 03 April 2014
http://82nd-and-fifth.metmuseum.org/monsters Explore this object: http://82nd-and-fifth.metmuseum.org/marble-capital-and-finial-in-the-form-of-a-sphinx-greek-attic-11.185d-x "This makes you think about beauty and especially female beauty as being both enchanting and dangerous. ." 82nd & Fifth invites 100 curators from across the Museum to talk about... [continue reading]
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Preparing pieces of papyrus ready for display in the exhibition Journey through the afterlife: ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead
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TICE ART 1010 Ancient Near Eastern and Ancient Egyptian Art

by Nancy Ross
published on 03 April 2014
Overview of Ancient Near Eastern and Ancient Egyptian Art for TICE ART 1010.
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TICE ART 1010 Greek and Roman Art

by Nancy Ross
published on 03 April 2014
Overview of Greek and Roman Art for the TICE ART 1010 Course
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The Babylonian mind

by britishmuseum
published on 03 April 2014
Trace the legacy of Babylonian discoveries and ideas, including their mathematical system based on 60 and their desire to predict the future. With British Museum curator Irving Finkel. http://www.britishmuseum.org/about_this_site/audio_and_video/exhibitions_-_archive/babylon_-_video_archive/babylonian_mind_video.aspx
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Inca ushnus: landscape, site and symbol in the Andes

by britishmuseum
published on 03 April 2014
For three years, a research team from the British Museum, the University of Reading, Royal Holloway University of London and the Universidad Nacional de San Cristobal de Huamanga set out to discover how the Inca Empire used a stone platform known as an ushnu as a symbol of political power. By enhancing our knowledge of how ushnus were built, their symbolism... [continue reading]
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From wax to metal: goldmaking techniques of the ancient Colombians

by britishmuseum
published on 03 April 2014
From wax to metal (de la cera al metal) Goldmaking techniques of the ancient Colombians Created for the exhibition Beyond El Dorado: power and gold in ancient Colombia at the British Museum, Organised with Museo del Oro, 17 October 2013 -- 23 March 2014 http://www.britishmuseum.org/whats_on/exhibitions/beyond_el_dorado.aspx
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Depletion gilding: goldmaking techniques of the ancient Colombians

by britishmuseum
published on 03 April 2014
Depletion gilding (dorado por oxidación). The gold-making techniques of the ancient Colombians. Created for the exhibition Beyond El Dorado: power and gold in ancient Colombia at the British Museum, Organised with Museo del Oro, 17 October 2013 -- 23 March 2014 http://www.britishmuseum.org/whats_on/exhibitions/beyond_el_dorado.aspx
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Making 2,000-year-old bread

by britishmuseum
published on 03 April 2014
In AD 79, a baker put his loaf of bread into the oven. Nearly 2,000 years later it was found during excavations in Herculaneum. The British Museum asked Giorgio Locatelli to recreate the recipe as part of his culinary investigations for 'Pompeii Live from the British Museum'. Get the full recipe and find out more at britishmuseum.org/pompeiilive
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Ice Age art: the female gaze

by britishmuseum
published on 03 April 2014
Sculptures of the female form are a feature of the exhibition Ice Age art: arrival of the modern mind. Here, exhibition curator Jill Cook and artist Ghislaine Howard explore these representations of women in Ice Age and contemporary art.
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The lasting legacy of Alexander the Great in Afghanistan

by britishmuseum
published on 03 April 2014
Find out about the lasting legacy of Alexander the Great in Afghanistan today. The exhibition Afghanistan: Crossroads of the Ancient World is at the British Museum until 3 July 2011. Book tickets now: http://bit.ly/dXJ9CY
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Hadrian: building the wall

by britishmuseum
published on 03 April 2014
In AD122 Hadrian ordered a mighty frontier system to be built across the north of Britain. The result was Hadrian's Wall, a 73 mile barrier stretching from the Solway Firth on the west coast of Britain to the River Tyne on the east coast. http://www.britishmuseum.org/the_museum/museum_in_london/london_exhibition_archive/archive_hadrian.aspx
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Hadrian: the power of image

by britishmuseum
published on 03 April 2014
For many years Hadrian was perceived as a peace-loving admirer of Greek culture and customs, a philhellene. But the one statue on which this long-standing perception was based is not all that it should be. British Museum curator Thorsten Opper and conservator Tracey Sweek investigate. http://www.britishmuseum.org/the_museum/museum_in_london/london_exhibition_archive/archive_hadrian.aspx
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Hadrian: the imperial palace

by britishmuseum
published on 03 April 2014
Hadrian built himself a vast palace in the countryside, the villa Adriana in Tivoli about 30 kilometres east of Rome. It was a huge complex, designed to accommodate thousands of people. It was his administrative capital and represents his empire in miniature. British Museum Director Neil MacGregor visits.
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The Tower of Babel with British Museum curator Irving Finkel

by britishmuseum
published on 03 April 2014
See various depictions of the Tower of Babel through the ages. With British Museum curator Irving Finkel http://www.britishmuseum.org/about_this_site/audio_and_video/exhibitions_-_archive/babylon_-_video_archive/towers_of_babel_video.aspx
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Nude Woman (Venus of Willendorf), c. 28,000-25,000 B.C.E.

by Smarthistory, Art History at Khan Academy
published on 03 April 2014
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=ENAZqOoOVaI Nude Woman (Venus of Willendorf), c. 28,000-25,000 B.C.E., Limestone, 4 1/4" high (Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna)
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Jade Cong

by Smarthistory, Art History at Khan Academy
published on 03 April 2014
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=ld8kHvz1yN4 Jade Cong, c. 2500 B.C.E., Liangzhu culture, Neolithic period, China (British Museum) A conversation between Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker
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Origins of Written Language (Language of Coins: 2/16)

by Art of the Problem
published on 03 April 2014
The origin of pictographic & ideographic writing systems are imagined in the first part of this story (proto-writing). The rebus principle is introduced, setting the stage for the development of an alphabet. Featuring some key artifacts from France, Spain, Egypt & Ancient Sumer: Cave Drawings, Narmer Palette, Hunters Palette, Cuneiform Accounting Tablets... [continue reading]
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Bushel with ibex motifs, c. 4200--3500 B.C.E., Susa

by Smarthistory, Art History at Khan Academy
published on 03 April 2014
Bushel with ibex motifs, 4200--3500 B.C.E., Susa I period, necropolis, acropolis mound, Susa, Iran, painted terra-cotta, 28.90 x 16.40 cm, excavations led by Jacques de Morgan, 1906-08 (Musée du Louvre) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker
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Standard of Ur, c. 2600-2400 B.C.E.

by Smarthistory, Art History at Khan Academy
published on 03 April 2014
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=Nok4cBt0V6w Standard of Ur, c. 2600-2400 B.C.E., 21.59 x 49.5 x 12 cm (British Museum) Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker & Dr. Beth Harris
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History of the Alphabet (Language of Coins: 3/16)

by Art of the Problem
published on 03 April 2014
History of the Alphabet. This video introduces the Hieroglyphic, Cuneiform, Hieratic, Demotic & Phoenician writing systems. It presents information as a series of selections from a finite collection of symbols... References (book): - The Alphabetic Labyrinth (Drucker) - Letter Perfect (David Sacks) - Empire and Communications (Innis) - The Mathematical Theory... [continue reading]
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Victory Stele of Naram-Sin, 2254-2218 B.C.E.

by Smarthistory, Art History at Khan Academy
published on 03 April 2014
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=OY79AuGZDNI Victory Stele of Naram-Sin, Akkadian, pink limestone, 2254-2218 B.C.E. (Louvre, Paris) This monument depicts the Akkadian victory over the Lullubi Mountain people. In the12th century B.C.E., 1,000 years after it was originally made, the Elamite king, Shutruk- Nahhunte, attacked Babylon... [continue reading]
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Law Code Stele of King Hammurabi, 1792-1750 B.C.E.

by Smarthistory, Art History at Khan Academy
published on 03 April 2014
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=_w5NGOHbgTw Law Code Stele of King Hammurabi, basalt, Babylonian, 1792-1750 B.C.E. (Musée du Louvre, Paris) A stele is a vertical stone monument or marker often inscribed with text or with relief carving. Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker
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Ashurbanipal Hunting Lions (Assyrian)

by Smarthistory, Art History at Khan Academy
published on 03 April 2014
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=J5iEY4hapMQ Ashurbanipal Hunting Lions, relief from the North Palace, Ninevah, Assyrian, c. 645-635 B.C.E. (British Museum) Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker & Dr. Beth Harris
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Ishtar Gate and Processional Way (reconstruction), Babylon, c. 575 B.C.E.

by Smarthistory, Art History at Khan Academy
published on 03 April 2014
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=U2iZ83oIZH0 Reconstruction of the Ishtar Gate and Processional Way, Babylon, c. 575 B.C.E., glazed mud brick (Pergamon Museum, Berlin) View this work up close on the Google Art Project: http://www.googleartproject.com/collection/pergamonmuseum-berlin/artwork/ishtar-gate-from-babylon/484075/
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Capital of a column from the audience hall of the palace of Darius I, Susa, c. 510 B.C.E.

by Smarthistory, Art History at Khan Academy
published on 03 April 2014
Capital of a column from the audience hall of the palace of Darius I, Susa, c. 510 B.C.E., Achaemenid, Tell of the Apadana, Susa, Iran (Louvre) Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker & Dr. Beth Harris
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Adam Thompson - Maori Mythology & Archaeology

by Past Preservers
published on 04 April 2014
Adam says "I have made several films on archaeological subjects, have performed on-screen in many different films, and have a passion for editing. I have worked on projects in several Pacific Islands (Tokelau, the Samoas, Hawaii, Tubuai), throughout the Americas (Peru, Belize, five US states) and even a bit in the Mediterranean (Malta). I feel the combination... [continue reading]
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Caroline Puzinas, discusses Akhenaten and Amarna

by Past Preservers
published on 22 April 2014
Caroline is a highly skilled archaeologist and museum specialist, as well as screenwriter and researcher in the fields of archaeology, history, paranormal phenomenon and ancient religion. She is keen to pursue professional development in the areas of media and archaeology themed shows and digital media.
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Hero Overpowering a Lion

by Thierry Ollivier
published on 09 April 2014
The Hero Overpowering a Lion Neo-Assyrian period, reign of Sargon II (721-705 BC) Khorsabad, ancient city of Dur Sharrukin, facade N of the throne room of the palace of Sargon II, Assyria (Iraq). High relief, gypseous alabaster, traces of paint H. 5.52 m; W. 2.18 m; D. 0.63 m Excavations by P.E. Botta, 1843-44 AO 19862 Near Eastern Antiquities... [continue reading]
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Katherine Rogers, Discusses Cranial Deformation in Chile

by Past Preservers
published on 10 April 2014
Kathering says, "I graduated from the University of California, Santa Barbara, with degrees in Anthropology, Communication, and Art History. I have traveled fairly extensively worldwide to destinations including Thailand, Greece, England, Switzerland, Italy, France, Mexico, Canada, and Chile. I have found incredible fulfillment in connecting with diverse... [continue reading]
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Jessica McGinn discusses Queen Hatshepsut

by Past Preservers
published on 10 April 2014
Jessica says, "I'm an archaeologist, adventurer, and lover of all things ancient! I have an Honours BA in Near Eastern and Classical Archaeology from Wilfrid Laurier University and I am in the process of receiving my Master's of Human Osteology and Funerary Archaeology from the University of Sheffield. I have dug in a Minoan palace, climbed to the top of... [continue reading]
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Mini-lecture: LGBT in Ancient Egypt (UCL)

by UCLTV
published on 10 April 2014
To celebrate LGBT History Month, the UCL Petrie Museum created an LGBT History Trail of objects that tell of homosexuality in ancient Egypt. It also considered some of the mythology and stories that construct ancient Egyptian sexuality. John Johnston, who is pursuing a PhD in UCL Archaeology, describes a few of the objects on display. Along with reliefs... [continue reading]
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Adrienne Lazazzera on why she is an archaeologist!

by Past Preservers
published on 10 April 2014
Adrienne Lazazzera is an anthropologist, archaeologist and martial artist. By nature and by profession, she is curious, adventurous and inquisitive. She loves puzzles and has the tenacity to pursue a question to it roots along all avenues until an answer surfaces. Digging into the past whether philosophically or physically is for her like such an adventure... [continue reading]
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Dr Julia Dye on "Becoming Alexander"

by Past Preservers
published on 12 April 2014
After receiving her Ph.D. in Hoplology, which combines anthropology, sociology, economics, and more to the study of history, Julia Dye wanted to see her knowledge used in a way that would have a lasting effect on the public. Using her background and experience, She's been fortunate to be able to work through various media to connect the wonders of history to the public audience.
Article

The Role of Greek Cavalry on the Battlefield

by David Josiah Weekley (Patrick Henry College)
published on 14 April 2014
Historians usually argue that the Greek hoplite phalanx rendered cavalry ineffective until Philip of Macedon and Alexander the Great began to employ cavalry as a shock weapon in the fourth century BCE. This assumption, however, assumes that cavalry are only truly powerful when they are used as a battering ram against enemy infantry. The evidence instead indicates... [continue reading]
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The Development of Culpa Under the Lex Aquilia

by Adam Giancola (University of Toronto)
published on 14 April 2014
The Lex Aquilia, likely passed by the jurist Aquilius around the year 287 BCE , superseded all previous laws of its kind under the Roman Republic. With an emphasis on the civil liability of damage to property, the Lex Aquilia represented the culmination of the rapid development of Roman law at the hands of the jurists. The notion of culpa as fault , from... [continue reading]
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The new year is here (at least in many parts of the world). This is, as usual, a good time to look back and examine what we've achieved, but also a time to look forward. We would like to share our thoughts on the past and future of Ancient History Encyclopedia with you. Growth The last year has been excellent for Ancient History Encyclopedia. We've... [continue reading]
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Tsohost is sponsoring us!

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 03 July 2013
Today we are happy to announce that we are being sponsored by Tsohost, the company that has been hosting Ancient History Encyclopedia for several years now. This is great news as it not only saves us money, but above all it means that we can improve our service to you, with faster and better hosting. We initially chose Tsohost because they had been recommended... [continue reading]
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We're happy to announce that the kind people at UserVoice are sponsoring us. We've been using their services for quite some time now; it's the little red feedback tab on the bottom right. They describe themselves in these terms: "UserVoice is the San Francisco-based startup that empowers you to help and understand your users so you can keep them happy with... [continue reading]
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After much preparation and a lot of work (which is far from being finished), we are pleased to include an interactive map section on Ancient History Encyclopedia. You can now geographically explore the ancient world and gain a much deeper understanding of not only geography and location, but also interconnections between civilizations and empires... [continue reading]
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Maya 3D Interview

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 09 August 2012
We just had the pleasure of interviewing Mathias Kohlschmidt and Martin Gruhn, the founders of Maya3D. Together with their team of programmers, 3D artists, and historians they have recreated several ancient Maya cities in 3D and turned this into a series of interactive iOS TimeTours apps. These apps are meant to serve as both an educational instrument and... [continue reading]
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The Zea Harbour Project (ZHP) is a combined land and underwater archaeological investigation of the ancient harbours of Zea and Mounichia in the Piraeus (Athens harbour city) in Greece. Launched in 2002 under the auspices of the Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities, the 26th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities (until 2009) and the Danish Institute... [continue reading]
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Doggerland Recreated in 3D

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 10 July 2012
Doggerland, the sunken land bridge between Britain and the European continent, has been recreated in 3D by a team of scientists. They used the computer game engine of Far Cry to create a stone age village, showing how the rising sea level might have forced the village's inhabitants to move. SPIEGEL Online has published a slideshow.
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With the Olympic Games 2012 coming to London, the British Museum in London has created a new trail through the museum titled "Winning at the ancient Games". The trail takes visitors to twelve objects in the museum that reveal more about the Olympic Games in ancient times. If you are in London, have a look -- it's free!
Blog
We have just added Google Translate to AHE. While it's not perfect, it will help many of our international readers. You can find it at the bottom of every page. Did you know that you can help improve the translation? Simply hold your mouse over a badly-translated sentence for a few seconds and you can correct the translated text.
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The British Museum in London is hosting the new free exhibition The Horse from Arabia to Royal Ascot(24 May to 30 September 2012)on the history of the horse.Discover the epic story of the horse in this special free exhibition a journey of 5,000 years that has revolutionised human history.The story focuses on two breeds Arabians, which were prized... [continue reading]
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Stanford University has just published ORBIS - The Stanford Geospatial Network Model of the Roman World, an online map of the Roman world, which lets users find travel routes between different locations around the Mediterranean. The tool finds the fastest route on land and sea, as well as its travel time. There are various options, including month of the year... [continue reading]
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Hardcore History Podcast

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 23 April 2012
There's a really interesting history podcast produced by Dan Carlin, called Hardcore History. He looks at various subjects in history, including several ancient subjects (such as the fall of the Roman Republic), in a very accessible, interesting, and captivating way. Fans of history and podcasting should definitely have a look at his site. Thanks to Felicia Day for the news tip.
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We are looking for your help with our next big project, which is best described as "Google Maps of the Ancient World". It's a very exciting and massive project. We need help with research on ancient cities and their placement on the map, with date ranges of their existence. As with the rest of the site, we cover the world from the beginning of civilization... [continue reading]
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Scientists have used satellite images to locate previously-unkown human settlements in Syria. Harvard archeologist Jason Ur and MIT computer scientist Bjoern Menze have combined spy-satellite photos acquired during the 1960s with modern images of the Earth's surface, and thus have devised a new method of mapping patterns of human settlements at an unprecedented... [continue reading]
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Google has just sent me an email to let me know that Ancient History Encyclopedia is now a featured education app in the Chrome Web Store! For all those Chrome users who haven't got our app yet, go ahead and install our app, to always have it easily accessible in your browser! And for those who aren't using Chrome yet... you should! ;-)
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The New York Times has published an article about recent discoveries on the cultures of ancient nomads in the Eurasian steppes. The recent findings show that nomadic societies were no less developed than their sedentary counterparts, and that they simply developed a different und no less successful strategy for survival. Also, there is an exhibition on this... [continue reading]
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The free-to-play browsergame Remanum has launched in English. In this massively multiplayer game the player takes the role of a Roman merchant who accumulates wealth and power, with the goal of becoming Roman Emperor. The game features a simulation of supply and demand in 20 historically important cities around the Mediterranean. Jan van der Crabben (the founder... [continue reading]
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Lecture on Anglo-Saxon Art

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 12 March 2012
The British Museum (London) is hosting the lecture Anglo-Saxon Art: Tradition and Transformation by Leslie Webster on Fri 20 Apr 2012 at 18:30. The lecture will trace this fascinating era of art and its recurring ideas and themes, as it changed from 5th-century metalwork to the magnificient illuminated manuscripts, ivories and sculpure of the 7th to 11th centuries... [continue reading]
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Sleep Patterns of the Past

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 23 February 2012
The BBC reports that the popular belief of eight hours of sleep being optimal is a development of the 19th century, and that people have had a very different pattern of sleep before. In previous times humans usually had a first period of sleep of several hours, followed by a night-time awake phase, which in turn is followed by a second period of sleep of several... [continue reading]
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Event: Golden age of the Celts

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 21 February 2012
LONDON. Ever wondered how the Celts warded off evil spirits? Come along to this event and find out more about the Celts. The British Museum is hosting an event of Celtic art and mythological stories for children and adults alike. The event costs GBP 12 and takes place on Sunday 04 March at the British Museum in London, from 14h00 to 19h00. Find out how to... [continue reading]
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The Costa Concordia, a cruise liner than recently sunk off the Italian island of Giglio, nearly landed on an ancient Roman shipwreck. The modern ship sunk only a ship's length away from the ancient wreck. The waters around Giglio are in fact an ancient ship graveyard, as many vessels have sunk there before. Even the oldest known shipwreck of the Mediterranean... [continue reading]
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Ice Age Flowers Regrown

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 21 February 2012
Russian biologists have managed to regrow flowers from seeds that were frozen for about 30.000 years. The seeds of prehistoric Silene stenophylla were extracted from plant seeds found in the Russian permafrost soil. They were probably dug in by Ice Age squirrels and never defrosted since. The flowers show significant differences from their modern counterparts... [continue reading]
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Analyzing Caesar’s Motivations and Emotions on the Banks the Rubicon By Michael Sweet Published Online, 2006 Introduction: Gaius Julius Caesar is among the most famous men in human history. His cognomen... [continue reading]
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From War Elephants to Circus Elephants: Humanity’s Abuse of  Elephants By Mike Jaynes Journal for Critical Animal Studies, Volume 7, Issue 1 (2009) Abstract: This paper examines the historical human... [continue reading]
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Wet-nursing in the Roman Empire: Indifference, efficiency and affection By Anna Sparreboom Thesis M-phil., VU University, Amsterdam (2009) Introduction: The introduction of artificial baby food in the western world... [continue reading]
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Hygienic conditions in ancient Rome and modern London By Lord Amulree Medical History, Vol.17:3 (1973) Introduction: Edwin Chadwick, acting on first principles only, outlined a programme for the improvement in the health... [continue reading]
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Infrastructure Protection in the Ancient World By Michael J. Assante Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (2009) Abstract: This paper provides lessons learned from ancient Roman attempts... [continue reading]
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They got married, had children, made beer. Although they lived 3,500 years ago in Nippur, Babylonia, in many ways they seem like us. Whether they were also slaves is a hotly contested question which Jonathan Tenney, assistant professor of ancient Near Eastern... [continue reading]
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A magnificent 2,000 year-old silver-gilt Roman helmet of outstanding quality and international importance was unveiled today in England. Archaeologists who made the original discovery at Hallaton in Leicestershire, used to finding more glamorous gold... [continue reading]
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I had the pleasure of interviewing Gordon Doherty, a Scottish writer of historical fiction, about his book Legionary (set in the Migration Age Byzantine Empire) and his latest book Strategos (set in the Medieval Byzantine Empire). In this interview, he talks about his interpretation of Byzantium and why it's a great setting for historical fiction. Click... [continue reading]
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Season 2 of Museum Secrets Premieres this week! Museum Secrets, the Canadian television show that explores museums from around the world returns for a second season on History Television, beginning January 12th, 2012... [continue reading]
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Tracing the Origins of the Ancient Egyptian Cattle Cult By Michael Brass A Delta Man in Yebu, ed. Eyma, A.K. and Bennett, C.J. (Universal-Publishers, 2003) Introduction: Studies of ancient Egyptian religion have examined texts... [continue reading]
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The Intellectual History of Catacomb Archaeology By Amy K. Hirschfeld Paper given at Commemorating the Dead: Texts and Artifacts in Context: The Shohet Conference on Roman, Jewish and Christian Burials (University of Chicago, 2005) Abstract: Since... [continue reading]
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A world record was set at an auction earlier this week, when an ancient Greek coin was bought for more than $3.25 million (US). The entire collection of 642 ancient coins was sold off for approximately $25 million through New York-based A. H. Baldwin and Sons auction house on Wednesday. Known... [continue reading]
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The first known Roman brothel token to have been discovered in London and most likely Britain, is on temporary display at the Museum of London. The token or spintria, depicts a man and a woman having sex on one face, and has the Roman numerals XIIII (14... [continue reading]
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Romans and Goths in late antique Gaul: asepcts of political and cultural assimilation in the Fifth Century AD RUCKERT, JULIA, MARGARETA, MARIA Masters thesis, Durham University (2011) Abstract... [continue reading]
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In search of Xerxes: images of the Persian king Clough, Emma Elizabeth Doctoral thesis, Durham University (2004) Abstract The figure of Xerxes, the Persian king who invaded Greece in 480 BC, is known to us primarily through Greek sources... [continue reading]
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The Early Dynastic Through Old Kingdom Stratification at Tell Er-Rub’a, Mendes Adams,  Matthew Doctor of Philosophy, The Pennsylvania State University, December (2007) Abstract This project... [continue reading]
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The Afterlife in Ancient Egypt

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 04 January 2012
The Afterlife in Ancient Egypt Skocilic, Jasmina (University of Zagreb, Croatia) Expanding Horizons: Travel and Exchanging Ideas through the Ages, Journal of the XIIIth annual ISHA conference (Nijmegen, 2002)  Abstract Western man places religion... [continue reading]
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The influence of Hannibal of Carthage on the art of war and how his legacy has been interpreted Messer, Rick Jay Master of Arts Thesis, Kansas State University (2009) Abstract This paper... [continue reading]
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The deification of imperial women: second-century contexts By Karin S. Tate Master’s Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, 2011 Abstract: In the early second century AD four extraordinary imperial deifications are recorded... [continue reading]
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Culture Contact, Cultural Integration and Difference: A Case From Northern Mesopotamia By Sevil Baltali Stanford Journal of Archaeology, Vol.5 (2007) Introduction: In this article, I revisit one of... [continue reading]
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Learning from Liu Hui? A Different Way to Do Mathematics By Christopher Cullen Notices of the American Mathematical Society, Vol.49 (2002) Introduction: Could we have done mathematics differently? At a logical level this question... [continue reading]
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Happy New Year

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 31 December 2011
We wish you a happy new year and a great 2012! A big thanks to all our contributors, without whose research and writing this website would not be possible. Many thanks to our visitors: students, enthusiasts, and teachers from all over the world. And another thanks to all those educators who refer their students to this humble website. Click on the headline... [continue reading]
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New in Ancient History books this week! The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean Cline, Eric H. Oxford Handbooks (January 1, 2012) Summary:The Greek Bronze Age, roughly 3000 to 1000 BC, witnessed the flourishing of the Minoan and Mycenean civilizations... [continue reading]
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Foreign soldiers – native girls? Constructing and crossing boundaries in Hellenistic cities with foreign garrison By Angelos Chaniotis Paper given at the 19th International Congress... [continue reading]
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Jesus the Healer in the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, and Early Christianity Moles, John Histos, 5 (2011) Abstract This paper argues that the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles contain sustained... [continue reading]
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The Casting of Julian the Apostate ‘in the Likeness’ of Alexander the Great: a Topos in Antique Historiography and its Modern Echoes Smith, Rowland Histos... [continue reading]
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Structuring Roman History: the Roman Year and the Roman Consular Tradition Rich, John Histos, 5 (2011) Abstract This article is concerned with the shaping of the annual narrative in historical writers working... [continue reading]
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The year 2011 will be marked by several important archaeological discoveries, and the overthrow of authoritarian regimes in Egypt and Libya, which had profound implications for the preservation of ancient history. Egyptian... [continue reading]
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Archaeologists in Israel have uncovered a 1,600 year-old bathhouse apparently used by the owners of a wealthy estate or an inn on an ancient road. Remains of an ancient bathhouse dating to the Byzantine period were exposed during work being conducted... [continue reading]
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On the Bravery of Women: The Ancient Amazon and Her Modern Counterparts Whalley, Jo Doctor of Philosophy in Classics, Victoria University of Wellington (2010) Abstract In a favourite mythological motif... [continue reading]
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Dux Femina Facti: Gender and Ethnicity in the Aeneid Burke, Rhiannon Christine Bachelor of Arts with Honors, Emory University (2011) Abstract The women of Vergil’s Aeneid are among the poem’s most memorable characters... [continue reading]
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Submission Fighting and the Rules of Ancient Greek Wrestling By Christopher Miller Published Online by JudoInfo (2004) Introduction: The Ancient Greek sports are remarkable in human history and instructive to those interested... [continue reading]
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Roman Virtue, Liberty, and Imperialism: The Murder-Suicide of Classical Civilization By Geoffrey Allan Plauche Published Online Introduction: It is widely recognized that the Romans made remarkable achievements... [continue reading]
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The ‘Solarization’ of the Moon: Manipulated Knowledge at Stonehenge By Lionel Sims Cambridge Archaeological Journal, Vol. 16:2 (2007) Abstract: Bronze Age as a period of separation from... [continue reading]
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Motherhood and Childbirth in Pharaonic Egypt S. Ashoush, MRCOG and A. Fahmy, MD Assistant lecturer and Lecturer, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology(Ain Shams University) History of Medicine: ASJOG • Volume 3 • February (2006)  Abstract... [continue reading]
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Pharmacological practices of ancient Egypt Parkins, Michael D.  (University of Calgary) The Proceedings of the 10th Annual HISTORY OF MEDICINE DAYS, THE FACULTY OF MEDICINE, THE UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Abstract Some of the most extensive... [continue reading]
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Relations between the Late Roman World and Barbarian Europe in the Light of Coin Finds Bursche, Aleksander XIV International Economic History Congress, Helsinki (2006), Session 30 The area considered... [continue reading]
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Mining: The Roman Exploitation of Northwest Spain By Lindsay McNeill Seminar Presentation, Western Oregon University, 2009 Introduction: The attitudes associated with Roman infiltration of the upper reaches of northern Spain are best described... [continue reading]
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The Celts in Iberia: An Overview

by Jan van der Crabben
published on 19 December 2011
The Celts in Iberia: An Overview By Alberto J. Lorrio and Gonzalo Ruiz Zapater e-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies, Vol. 6 (2005) Abstract: A general overview of the study of the Celts in the Iberian Peninsula is offered from... [continue reading]
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Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean By Pierre A. Zalloua et al. The American Journal of Human Genetics, Vol.83 (2008) Abstract: The... [continue reading]
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Fluid Frontiers: Cultural Interaction on the Edge of Empire By Andrew Gardner Stanford Journal of Archaeology, Volume 5 (2007) Abstract: This paper will use the northern frontiers of the Roman empire as a case study... [continue reading]
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Epic Appetites: Images of Food in Ancient Greece and Rome By Jenifer Neils Paper given at the Western Reserve Studies Symposium (2000) Introduction: Although there exist many accounts describing food, its production, consumption... [continue reading]
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Crassus as Symposiast in Plutarch’s Life of Crassus By James T. Chlup Symposion and Philanthropia in Plutarch, edited by J. R. Ferreira, D. Leão, M. Tröster, and P. Barata (Coimbra, 2009) Abstract: The references to Crassus... [continue reading]
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Private Armies and Personal Power in the Late Roman Empire By Ryan Wilkinson Master’s Thesis, University of Arizona, 2009 Abstract: This thesis’ case studies examine the critical roles... [continue reading]
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From Infant Sacrifice to the ABC’s: Ancient Phoenicians and Modern Identities By Brien K. Garnand Stanford Journal