User: jenni.irving

Published Content

Article

Theodora: A True Heroine?

by Jenni Irving
published on 17 September 2013
Was Theodora I, the wife of Emperor Justinian of Byzantium (reigned  527 - 565 CE), a heroine?  The historian Treadgold calls her a protectress of women, as she used her influence to help them gain rights. She is also seen in popular legend as a protector and defender of the poor and weak. Because she was a close collaborator, some even say... [continue reading]
Article

Curses & Fines On Epitaphs

by Jenni Irving
published on 13 September 2012
In antiquity, apart from thieves, tombs were also damaged by people of low economic status. While thieves damaged tombs for burial gifts and the clothing of the dead, some people opened tombs of strangers to bury members of their own families or dismantled them in order to use pieces to make a new tomb. Grave monuments were also damaged to make milestones... [continue reading]
Article
This article is a source-critical Analysis of Mark 4:30-32, Luke 13:18-19, Matt. 13:31b-32 and G.Thom. 20:1-2, otherwise know as the parable of the Mustard Seed. On first comparison we see that all three synoptic texts agree on the essence of the parable but none are identical.  All three texts discuss the kingdom of God in likeness to a mustard... [continue reading]
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Byzantine Church

by J.Irving 2008
published on 26 April 2012
Byzantine Church near Napflio
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Roman Bath House

by J.Irving 2008
published on 26 April 2012
Hydrocausts under the floor of the Roman Bathhouse at Isthmia
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Excavations at side of Roman bath

by J.Irving 2008
published on 26 April 2012
Excavations at side of Roman Bath and the Hexamilion wall
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Roman Bath

by j.Irving 2008
published on 26 April 2012
Mosaic floor of Roman Bath house
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Peirene Fountain at Corinth

by J.Irving 2008
published on 26 April 2012
Beautiful Fountain at the end of four manmade underground reservoirs and an intricate system of water pipes. Added to and changed throughout the Classical period right down to the Christians
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Theatre at Korinth

by J.Irving 2008
published on 26 April 2012
Theatre at Korinth
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Akrokorinth

by J.Irving 2008
published on 26 April 2012
Akrokorinth as seen from the second gate Fortifications dating back to classical times and used continually down to the Venetians
Encyclopedia Definition

Iotape

by Jenni Irving
published on 31 May 2012
Iotape, also known as Aytap, is a port city about 30km east of Alanya in Cilicia in Anatolia. The first archaeological evidence for human settlement at the site comes from the first century AD though there is a some concensus that it was earlier inhabited by tribes. It was originally founded by Antiochis IV in 52 AD after he took control of Cilicia. Antiochis... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Isthmia

by Jenni Irving
published on 28 April 2011
Isthmia is a genitive noun with the meaning 'of the Isthmus.' It generally refers to the site that held the famous Isthmian Games near Korinth on the Isthmus. A natural assembly place for many Greeks and travellers. Isthmia in Antiquity was one of Greece's large Panhellenic sanctuaries and played host to the Isthmian Games (founded in 584BC) and hence held... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Philology

by Jenni Irving
published on 05 June 2012
Philology is derived from the Greek terms φίλος (love) and λόγος (word, reason) and literally means a love of words. It is the study of language in literary sources and is a combination of literary studies, history and linguistics. Philology is generally associated with Greek and Classical Latin... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Antiochia ad Cragum

by Jenni Irving
published on 11 May 2012
Located in Cilicia in Anatolia, Antiochia ad Cragum has also been called Antiochetta and Antiohia Parva which basically translate to ‘little Antiochia’. Its name ‘Cragum’ comes from its position on the Cragus mountain overlooking the coast. It is located in the area of modern Guney about 12 km from the modern city of Gazipasa... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Cilicia

by Jenni Irving
published on 14 May 2012
The region of Cilicia is located in the southern part of Anatolia. Located on an active Mediterranean trade route, Cilicia is generally associated with its area of native rebellion and piracy. Cilician pirates particularly dominated between 133 and 67 BCE when they were defeated by Pompey the Great. Pompey revolutionised warfare at this time by offering... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Ogham

by Jenni Irving
published on 11 May 2012
One of the stranger ancient scripts one might come across, Ogham is also known as the ‘Celtic Tree Alphabet’. Estimated to have been used from the fourth to the tenth century CE, it is believed to have been possibly named after the Irish god Ogma but this is debated widely. Ogham actually refers to the characters themselves, the script as a whole... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Numismatics

by Jenni Irving
published on 14 May 2012
Numismatics the study of coinage, and is a wonderfully useful tool in the archaeologist’s and historian’s toolbox. One of the best things for an archaeologist to find while digging is a coin. The reason is simple; it can instantly provide some date for the layer they are digging. Additionally, coins provide information for trade, economy, social organisation... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Futhark

by Jenni Irving
published on 18 May 2012
Futhark is a script of alphabetic runes, used to write various Germanic languages. Futhark was in use from the second century AD to the eleventh century AD. Elder Futhark The oldest form of runic scripts, Elder Futhark is named for the first six runes in its alphabet, F, U, Th, A,R, and K. It was used in the North West of Europe from around the second... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Cilicia Campestris

by Jenni Irving
published on 14 June 2012
Campestris is located in the area of modern Mopsuestia in Anatolia, 20 km east of Antiochia ad Cragum. Its foundations are said to lie in the legend of the soothsayer Mopsus who lived there before the Trojan War. Pliny the Elder mentions the city as Mopsos in 5.22. It was mentioned also by Stephanus of Byzantium and the Christian geographers... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Side

by Jenni Irving
published on 04 May 2013
Side (Σίδη) (meaning pomegranate) is located in the region of Pamphylia in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) and was both a prosperous Aegean trading centre in Hellenistic and Roman times and a base for Cilician pirates in the 1st and 2nd centuries BCE. One of the first things you notice on arrival at the site is that modern Side is a tourist... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Tarsus

by Jenni Irving
published on 31 May 2012
Tarsus is a city located inland from the Mediterranean by about 20km in the area of Cilicia, Anatolia. It sits on a major trade route which increased its prosperity over its 2000 years of known historical contribution. It was an important point of intersection between the land and sea routes making it a significant place of commerce. At one point it was... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Hamaxia

by Jenni Irving
published on 09 July 2012
Hamaxia was a settlement located in Western Cilicia in the area of modern Sinekkale in Turkey (Anatolia) about 6km from Coracesium. There is little literature about the site but the archaeology includes well-preserved evidence of a walled-in settlement with an arched gate on its South side and a three-naved church in its West. There is also a necropolis... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Piracy

by Jenni Irving
published on 23 August 2012
The ancient origins of piracy are still seen clearly in the modern world. The term ‘pirate’ has its roots in the Greek word πειράομαι meaning ‘I attempt’ which developed into πειρατής meaning ‘Brigand’ (LSJ: brigand, Plb.4.3.8, LXX Jb. 16.10(9... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Neodamodeis

by Jenni Irving
published on 07 October 2012
A huge part of the Spartan population was made up of those who were not actually Spartan, the helots; a cause of great concern to the Spartans throughout their history. These helots were slaves that were usually captives of the Spartans forced into the service of their captors. However, some of these slaves were awarded their freedom after spending time... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Cave of Letters

by Jenni Irving
published on 07 May 2013
Everyone is aware of the Dead Sea Scrolls, but few realise that these were just one find in a region which continues to yield hundreds of finds significant to our understanding of lives in the first centuries CE, the Jewish revolts and the relationships between the peoples involved in the area. The Cave of Letters is one such site in Israel which... [continue reading]
Encyclopedia Definition

Trephination

by Jenni Irving
published on 01 May 2013
Trephination (also known as trepanning or burr holing) is a surgical intervention where a hole is drilled, incised or scraped into the skull using simple surgical tools. In drilling into the skull and removing a piece of the bone, the dura mater is exposed without damage to the underlying blood-vessels, meninges and brain. Trephination has been used... [continue reading]
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