User: OsamaSMAmin

Published Content

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This partially broken document mentions the name of King Nur-Adad, king of Larsa, 1921-1905 BCE. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq).
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This pottery coffin contains a woman's skeleton inside it, and it was found in Faida district, near modern Dukok city, Iraq. 1st millennium BCE. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq).
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This rock relief dates back to the Akkadian era. It lies on the cliff of Mt. Darbadi Bilula, Hori and Shekhan area, Sulaimaniya, near the Iranian border, Iraq. Circa 2100 BCE. It features a victorious man with two captives before him; one is kneeling and the other one is beneath his foot. On the right, there are Akkadian cuneiform inscriptions in 4 columns.
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A rock relief depicting the victory of the Akkadian king Naram Sin after defeating Lulubis, tribes who came from the Zagros mountains west of Iran. The relief was made on the surface of a mountain cliff, modern Qopi Qoshk, Qaradagh's mountains, Sulaimaniya, Iraq, about 1000 metres above sea level. The king stands on enemy corpses.
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This mortar was an offering from Gudea (ruler of Lagash) to the god Enlil. Neo-Sumerian era, 2141-2122 BCE. From Nippur (modern Nuffar, Al-Qadisiyah Governorate, Iraq), southern Mesopotamia.(Istanbul Archaeological Museums/Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul, Turkey).
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This piece was found at the throne of Akurgal, King of Lagash. First dynasty of Lagash, early dynastic period, circa 2500 BCE. From Girsu (modern Tell Telloh), Sumer, southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. (Istanbul Archaeological Museums/Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul, Turkey).
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Kassite Era Rock-relief, Iraq

by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin
published on 05 October 2013
This rock-relief lies on one of the tops of Mt. Pira Magroon, Sulaimaniya, Iraq. It is 1716 meters above sea level. In 2009, an expedition was carried out by a Western team to find out who is the man featured in this relief and who lived in this area. The relief contains no single word or letter. Unfortunately, after 56 days in the area, the team failed... [continue reading]
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Stamped Mud Brick, Babylonia, Mesopotamia

by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FACP, FRCP(Glasg)
published on 14 October 2013
This is a stamped mud brick with cuneiform inscriptions, which lies within a building's wall in ancient Babylonia (modern Babylon governorate), Mesopotamia, Iraq.
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Stela of Iddi-Sin, King of Simurrum

by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FACP, FRCP(Glasg)
published on 14 October 2013
The stela of Iddi-Sin, King of Simurrum celebrates and commemorates the victories of this King against his enemies, mostly tribes of West Iran. The stela is carved with 108 lines of cuneiform inscriptions and was found at Qarachatan, Pira Magroon mountain, Sulaimaniya, Iraq. Old Babylonian era, circa 2003-1595 BCE. It is currently housed in the Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq.
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A rock relief depicting the victory of the Akkadian king Naram Sin after defeating Lulubis, tribes who came from the Zagros mountains west of Iran. The relief was made on the surface of a mountain cliff, modern Qopi Qoshk, Qaradagh's mountains, Sulaimaniya, Iraq, about 1000 metres above sea level. The king stands on enemy corpses.
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In June/July 2013 CE, an archaeological team started a mission to reconstruct the lion of Babylon statue and its surrounding. The platform of the statue has been reconstructed with cement. The lion itself was untouched.
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A close-up view of a lion's head work relief which decorates the processional street (from Marduk temple to the Ishtar Gate and Akitu Temple). It was made of glazed terracotta bricks. Reign of Nebuchadnezzar II, 604-562 BCE, Babylon, Mesopotamia, Iraq. Housed by the Istanbul Archeological Museum, Turkey.
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A statue depicting a naked woman with her hands on her breasts. Terracotta, Old Babylonian period, 2000-1600 BCE, Mesopotamian, Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq.
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A statue of a Sumerian worshipper. Marble, early dynastic period, 2800-2300 BCE, Mesopotamia, Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq.
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Cuneiform inscriptions on a head, early dynastic period, 2800-2300 BCE, Mesopotamia, Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq.
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A hand of the Goddess Ishtar (Inanna). This is a decorative element of architecture which was used in temples and palaces. It is inscribed with cuneiform inscriptions and was found in the palace of Ashurnasirpal II to commemorate the new foundation of God Ninurta's temple at Nimrud, the Assyrian capital. Reign of Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BCE), Nimrud, Mesopotamia, Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq.
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A pair of golden earrings with the shape of a half pumpkin. The overlying decorative cuneiform inscriptions mention that these earrings were a gift from King Shulgi. Mesopotamia, new Sumerian era, Ur III, reign of King Shulgi, 2029-1982 BCE. Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq.
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A pottery incense container which was found at layer 5 of the altar platform of the central temple of Basmosian hill, Mesopotamia, Hurrian period, 2nd millennium BCE. Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq.
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A clay mask depicting a face with acting expressions. Mesopotamian art usually portrays human faces in a poker-like configuration. This one has 3 small holes at the upper part which might have been used to attach it to a necklace with the purpose of incantation/exorcism. Mesopotamia, old Babylonian era, 2000-1500 BCE, Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq.
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This ivory plaque depicts six Assyrian worshippers in procession in six vertical rectangles. Note the details of their dresses. The men are bare-chested and wear kilts while the women wear a full dress. Both wear an impressive belt. Four men and two women stand on what appears to be the Symbol of God Assure. The plaque was part of furniture inlay. A striking... [continue reading]
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A votive plaque of white marble. The lower part shows two men carrying a large jar and another man in front of them seems to steer an animal from behind, perhaps a cow or horse. At the upper part there are two men sitting in front of each other holding two glasses and drinking something in "a cheers action". Early dynastic period, 2900-2300 BCE, Mesopotamia, Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq.
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Three rounded ceramic objects with saw-teeth like margins. They have small holes on both ventral and dorsal aspects. Upon moving them, a sound comes out as if there is a small object inside them. May have been used in religious, sorcery,or magical liturgy. Mesopotamia, old Babylonian era, 2000-1500 BCE, Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq.
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It was erected as a public monument in 825 BCE at a time of civil war. The relief sculptures glorify the achievements of King Shalmaneser III and his commander-in-chief . It lists their military campaigns of thirty-one years and the tribute they exacted from their neighbors It is the most complete Assyrian obelisk yet discovered, and is historically significant... [continue reading]
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In ancient Assyria, lion-hunting was considered the sport of kings, symbolic of the ruling monarch’s duty to protect and fight for his people. The sculpted reliefs illustrate the sporting exploits of the last great Assyrian king, Ashurbanipal (668-631 BCE) and were created for his palace at Nineveh (in modern-day northern Iraq). The hunting scenes, full... [continue reading]
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This tablet contains both a cuneiform inscription and a unique map of the Mesopotamian world. Babylon is shown in the center (the rectangle in the top half of the circle), and Assyria, Elam and other places are also named. The central area is ringed by a circular waterway labelled 'Salt-Sea'. The outer rim of the sea is surrounded by what were probably originally... [continue reading]
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This stone tablet records the restoration of certain lands by the Babylonian king Nabu-apla-iddina to a priest. On the top of the stone are 13 symbols of the gods designed to protect the legal statement. Both the king, wearing the typical Babylonian royal hat, and the priest, who has a hand raised in salute, are shown on the obverse with labels identifying... [continue reading]
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A close-up view of a winged human-headed lion, Lamassu, that flanked one of the entrances into the throne room of Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BCE). Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), north-west palace, room B, door a, panel 2. Neo-Assyrian era, 883-859 BC, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The British Museum, London)
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This is a pair of guardian figures (winged human-headed lions) that flanked one of the entrances into the throne room of Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BCE). Stone mythological guardians, sculpted in relief or in the round, were often placed at gateways to ancient Mesopotamian palaces, to protect them from demonic forces. They were known to the Assyrians as lamassu... [continue reading]
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This stela was erected in the capital city of Kalhu (modern Nimrud) by the Assyrian king Shamshi-Adad V (reigned 824-811 BCE). It depicts the king, before the symbols of his principal gods. He extends his right hand, with the forefinger outstretched, as if he has just snapped his fingers. This is the typical Assyrian gesture of respect and supplication towards... [continue reading]
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The age-old vulnerability of libraries in times of warfare applied as ever during the sack of Nineveh. Many tablets were badly smashed, while others probably perished altogether. With some, such as this tablet of lunar omens, severe burning resulted in the partial vitrification of the clay. From the library of king Ashurbanipal II, Nineveh, Mesopotamia, Iraq. Neo-Assyrian... [continue reading]
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It is possible that the head and body were not originally part of a single statue. From Girsu (modern Telloh), southern Mesopotamia, Iraq, reign of Gudea, c. 2130 BCE. (The British Museum, London)
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The figure could be an aspect of the goddess Ishtar, Mesopotamian goddess of sexual love and war, or Ishtar's sister and rival, the goddess Ereshkigal who ruled over the Underworld, or the demoness Lilitu, known in the Bible as Lilith. The plaque probably stood in a shrine. Old Babylonian era, 1800-1750 BCE, from southern Iraq (place of excavation is unknown... [continue reading]
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This door-slab came from the lower part of a flight of steps in the Temple of Ezida in Borsippa, part of the building works of the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562 BCE). The recess is for a door-post. The pattern represents a carpet ornamented with rosettes. The door slab has been cut in two and it may have have been relaid about 268 BCE under... [continue reading]
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Each peg has a very faint cuneiform inscription of Gudea, the ruler of the city-state of Lagash. Foundation pegs were buried in the foundation of buildings to magically protect them and preserve the builder's name for posterity. In this case, the peg is supported by a god (Mesopotamian gods are usually depicted wearing horned headdresses). Kingdom of Lagash... [continue reading]
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This is one of the few surviving sculptures from the palace which Esarhaddon left unfinished at his death. Neo-Assyrian era, circa 670 BCE. From the south-west palace at Nimrud, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The British Museum, London)
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Dolerite statue of Gudea, ruler of Lagash. Upper part of standing figure with head; carved and polished mottled green dolerite; but neck restored; represents Gudea, king of Lagash. It is possible that the head and body were not originally part of a single statue. From Girsu (modern Telloh), southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Reign of Gudea, circa 2130 BCE. (The British Museum, London)
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Each peg has a very faint cuneiform inscription of Gudea, the ruler of the city-state of Lagash. Foundation pegs were buried in the foundation of buildings to magically protect them and preserve the builder's name for posterity. In this case, the peg is supported by a god (Mesopotamian gods are usually depicted wearing horned headdresses). Kingdom of Lagash... [continue reading]
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This carved ivory panel is one of an almost identical pair with one now in the Iraq Museum, Baghdad. They originally formed part of a piece of furniture, perhaps a throne. The incised letter 'aleph' beside holes on the top and bottom of the panel would have served as a construction guide. c. 9th-8th century BCE. From the palace of Ashurnasirpal II, Nimrud, northern... [continue reading]
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An alabaster bas-relief depicting the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III. From the central palace, Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), Mesopotamia, northern Iraq. Neo-Assyrian era, circa 728 BCE. (The British Museum, London)
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This lyre was found in the 'Great Death-Pit', one of the graves in the Royal Cemetery at Ur. From Ur, southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Early dynastic period, 2600-2400 BCE. (The British Museum, London)
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An elaborate headdress and necklace made of gold, lapis lazuli, and carnelian which belonged to a high-level Sumerian woman. These were found in the "Great Death-Pit", one of the graves in the Royal Cemetery at Ur. From Ur, southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Early dynastic period, 2600-2400 BCE. (The British Museum, London)
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Rectangular stone foundation document of the Assyrian king Adad-Nirari I. It recounts the king's victories over the Mitanni, who had failed to gain Hittite support, and the extension of Assyrian rule west to the Euphrates. The stone appears to have been intended for a palace that Adad-Nirari planned to be rebuilt in a Mitanni city, but if so, it never reached... [continue reading]
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The silver cow's head decorating the front has inlaid eyes of shell and lapis lazuli. This lyre was found in the 'Great Death-Pit', one of the graves in the Royal Cemetery at Ur. From Ur, southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Early dynastic period, 2600-2400 BCE. (The British Museum, London)
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These lyres were found in queen Pu-Abi's grave, inside the "Great Death-Pit", one of the graves in the Royal Cemetery at Ur. From Ur, southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Early dynastic period, 2600-2400 BCE. (The British Museum, London)
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Fragment of a stone stele dedicated by Itur-Ashdum, Hammurabi; king Hammurapi at worship. The cuneiform inscription states that a high official called Itur-Ashdum dedicated a statue of a lamma to the goddess Ashratum in her temple on behalf of King Hammurapi (reigned 1792-1750 BCE). The figure carved to the left of the inscription may represent Hammurapi... [continue reading]
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An alabaster bas-relief depicting the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III stands over a captured enemy. The cuneiform inscription describes an Assyrian campaign in Iran 744 BCE. From the central palace at Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), reused and moved in the south-west palace, Mesopotamia, northern Iraq. Neo-Assyrian era, 728 BCE. (The British Museum, London)
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This alabaster panel was part of the decorative scheme of the palace of King Tiglath-pileser III (reigned 745-727 BCE) at Kalhu. The king is shown in his chariot, while in another scene above Assyrian soldiers drive out prisoners and flocks from a fortified city, Astartu. The band of cuneiform across the middle relates part of Tiglath-pileser's account... [continue reading]
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Irregular rectangular-sided monument recording Esarhaddon's restoration of Babylon; possibly black basalt; carved symbols on the upper surface. Height 8.5 inches. The stone is not local to Mesopotamia. The irregular shape of the object suggests that it was cut from a naturally rounded piece of stone. The inscription is incomplete. Neo-Assyrian era... [continue reading]
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This prism records the first eight campaigns of the Assyrian King Sennacherib (704-681 BCE). This six-sided baked clay document (or prism) was discovered at the Assyrian capital Nineveh, in an area known today as Nebi Yunus. It was acquired by Colonel R. Taylor, British Consul General at Baghdad, in 1830 CE, after whom it is named. The British Museum purchased... [continue reading]
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This stela came from the Temple of Marduk in Babylon. It is a commemorative monument set up in honour of a private individual called Adad-Etir. He was an official in the temple, known as 'the dagger bearer', and this stela was erected by his son Marduk-balassu-iqbi. The figures carved in relief on the front represent the father and son together. Their shaven... [continue reading]
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The Assyrian king worships gods (Ashur, Shamash, Sin, Adad, and Ishtar) and records his achievements. This freestanding gypsum monument was erected by King Ashurnasirpal II (reigned 883-859 BCE). This stela weighs over four tons and was erected outside the Temple of Ninurta (a god of hunting and warfare) built by the king in his newly established capital... [continue reading]
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The legend, written in Akkadian, describes how Ishtar, goddess of sexuality and warfare, went to the Underworld. Ishtar decided to undertake the journey, although the Underworld was known as the 'land of no return' for humans and gods alike. On the way down she passes through seven doorways and each time the gatekeeper removes from her the symbols and clothes... [continue reading]
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It narrates the various religious activities of king Nabonidus and contains the harassment of enemies to the city of Babylon and nearby cities and the renovation of these cities by him as well as homage paid to Gods welling in them. The stele was made of granite. Reign of Nabonidus, Neo-Babylonian era, 555-539 BCE, Babylon, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (Istanbul Archeological Museum).
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Statue of the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III, son of Ashurnasirpal II, grandson of Tikulti-Ninurta. The inscriptions on the statue give a brief account of the king's genealogical titles and characteristics. Basalt, from Assur, neo-Assyrian period, reign of Shalmaneser III, 858-824 BCE. (Istanbul Archeological Museum).
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Statue of the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III, son of Ashurnasirpal II, grandson of Tikulti-Ninurta. The inscriptions on the statue give a brief account of the king's genealogical titles and characteristics. Basalt, from Assur, neo-Assyrian period, reign of Shalmaneser III, 858-824 BCE. (Istanbul Archeological Museum).
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The Assyrian king Shalmaneser III beneath a parasol, accepts the tribute from Iaua from the house of Humri in 841 BCE. This is king Jehu of Israel, who appears in the Bible (2 Kings 9-10). From Nimrud, (ancient Kalhu), near the building of Shalmaneser, neo-Assyrian era, 827 BCE, Mesopotamia, northern Iraq. (The British Museum).
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Attendants bring tribute from Musri with two-humped camels. Musri, meaning a borderland, probably refers to a country in eastern Iran or in Egypt. From Nimrud, (ancient Kalhu), near the building of Shalmaneser, neo-Assyrian era, 827 BCE, Mesopotamia, northern Iraq. (The British Museum).
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Lions and a stag from Marduk-apla-usur the Suhean, probably for the Royal hunting park. Suhi is an area on the middle Euphrates, between modern Syria and Iraq. From Nimrud, (ancient Kalhu), near the building of Shalmaneser, neo-Assyrian era, 827 BCE, Mesopotamia, northern Iraq. (The British Museum).
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Tribute from Qarparunda the Patinean: silver, gold, tin, "fast" bronze, ivory (tusks), and ebony. Patina is modern Antakya, south of Turkey. From Nimrud, (ancient Kalhu), near the building of Shalmaneser, neo-Assyrian era, 827 BCE, Mesopotamia, northern Iraq. (The British Museum).
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The Assyrian king Shalmaneser III, holding a bow, receives a tribute from Sua the Gilzanean. The king faces his field marshal and another official.From Nimrud, (ancient Kalhu), near the building of Shalmaneser, neo-Assyrian era, 827 BCE, Mesopotamia, northern Iraq. (The British Museum).
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The panel shows a pacing, roaring lion and once was part of King Nebuchadnezzar II’s throne room in his palace in the ancient city of Babylon. These roaring lions emphasized the power and might of the Babylonian king. Neo-Babylonian era, reign of King Nebuchadnezzar II, 605-562 BCE, Babylon, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The British Museum).
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This stele was made of limestone and was found in Nineveh. On the relief, the Assyrian king Sennacherib prays in front of divine symbols and Gods. It records the king's achievements and expansion of his royal capital, Nineveh. Reign of Sennacherib, 705–681 BCE. From Nineveh, Mesopotamia, northern Iraq. (Istanbul Archeological Museum, Turkey).
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This stele was made of limestone and was found in Nineveh. On the relief, the Assyrian king Sennacherib prays in front of divine symbols and Gods. It records the king's achievements and expansion of his royal capital, Nineveh. Reign of Sennacherib, 705–681 BCE. From Nineveh, Mesopotamia, northern Iraq. (Istanbul Archeological Museum, Turkey).
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It narrates the various religious activities of king Nabonidus and contains the harassment of enemies to the city of Babylon and nearby cities and the renovation of these cities by him as well as homage paid to Gods welling in them. The stele was made of granite. Reign of Nabonidus, Neo-Babylonian era, 555-539 BCE, Babylon, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (Istanbul Archeological Museum).
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Bel-harran-beli-usur was a high palace official (chamberlain) during the reign of the Assyrian kings Shalmaneser IV (782-773 BC) and Tigleth-Pileser III (744-727 BC). He built a city and a large temple to the west of Nineveh. The stele features Bel-harran-beli-usur prays in front of divine symbols and Gods. Marble, Tel Abda, Mesopotamia, 8th century BCE. (Istanbul Archeological Museum).
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Bel-harran-beli-usur was a high palace official (chamberlain) during the reign of the Assyrian kings Shalmaneser IV (782-773 BC) and Tigleth-Pileser III (744-727 BC). He built a city and a large temple to the west of Nineveh. The stele features Bel-harran-beli-usur prays in front of divine symbols and Gods. Marble, Tel Abda, Mesopotamia, 8th century BCE. (Istanbul Archeological Museum).
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Statue of the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III, son of Ashurnasirpal II, grandson of Tikulti-Ninurta. The inscriptions on the statue give a brief account of the king's genealogical titles and characteristics. Basalt, from Assur, neo-Assyrian period, reign of Shalmaneser III, 858-824 BCE. (Istanbul Archeological Museum).
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The cave of Shanidar lies in the Bradost mountain, part of Zagros Mountain range in Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq. The site is located within in the valley of the Great Zab river. It was excavated from 1957–1961 CE by Ralph Solecki and his team from Columbia University and yielded the first adult Neanderthal skeletons in Iraq, dating from 60–80,000 years BCE.
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According to the inscription on the diorite piece of stele, it belongs to King Naram-Sin. It was found in Pir Hüseyin, a village near Diyarbakır. As it shows the borders of the Akkadian State in the era of Naram-Sin and reflects the artistic features of that era, it is one of the most important pieces of evidence concerning the Akkadian culture. King Naram-Sin... [continue reading]
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Shamsh-res-usur was a local governor of Mari and Suhi. The stele tells us that this governor reigned for 13 years. During this period, he re-built the city of Gabarri-Ibni, established irrigation canals, and encouraged the planting of date palms in various nearby cities. He also developed several plans for agriculture. Limestone, found in Babylon, Mesopotamia... [continue reading]
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The stele was erected by one of the king’s local governors, Nergal-Eres, at Saba. The stele’s inscriptions report on the King’s victorious campaign against Palashtu (Palestine) and features the Assyrian King Adad-Nirai III praying in front of God symbols. Basalt, found in Saba, neo-Assyrian era, 810-783 BCE. (Istanbul Archeological Museum/Ancient Orient Museum)
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Alabaster work relief of an Assyrian royal attendant, from the northwest palace of Ashurnasirpal II. Reign of Ashurnasirpal II, 883-859 BCE, Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), Mesopotamia. (The Burrell Collection, Glasgow).
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Reign of king Nebuchadnezzar II, neo-Babylonian era, 605–562 BCE. Ancient Babylon (modern Babel governorate), Iraq.
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The Assyrian king in a chariot watches as prisoners are brought in and heads and booty are piled-up in a palm grove. Neo-Assyrian era, 640-620 BCE, Mesopotamia, Iraq. From Nineveh, south-west palace, court XIX, panels 10-12. (The British Museum).
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From the temple and ziggurat of God Nabu. Borsippa, Mesopotamia, Iraq.
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The ziggurat, the "Tongue Tower," today one of the most vividly identifiable surviving ziggurats, is identified in the later Talmudic and Arabic culture with the Tower of Babel. However, modern scholarship concludes that the Sumero-Akkadian builders of the Ziggurat in reality erected it as a religious edifice in honor of the local god Nabu, the "son" of Babylon's... [continue reading]
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The temple to Nabu at Borsippa was destroyed in 484 BCE during the suppression of a revolt against the Achaemenid king Xerxes. Modern "Biris Namrud," Babil governorate, Iraq.
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Reign of King Nebuchadnezzar II, neo-Babylonian era, 605–562 BCE. Ancient Babylon (modern Babel governorate), Iraq.
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The treaty of Kadesh was written in Akkadian language in 1269 BCE. It was a peace-treaty which was concluded between Ramesses II (the Egyptian pharaoh) and Hattusilis (king of Hittite). These two tablets were found in Boğazköy-Buyulkale (the ancient capital of the Hittite), Turkey in 1906. Terracotta, Hittite imperial era, 1269 BCE. (Istanbul Archeological Museum/Ancient Orient Museum).
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This clay document tells us how Nabonidus (the last king of Babylon) built and reconstructed the temple of Sin, the moon God, at Ur. It also mentions a prayer for the king and Beslshazzar, his son. From Ur, neo-Babylonian era, 555-539 BCE, Mesopotamia, Iraq.(The British Museum, London).
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This cylinder includes three columns of cuneiform inscriptions that record the reconstruction and restoration of the temple of Shamash, the sun God, at Larsa, by the last king of Babylon, Nabonidus. Probably from Larsa, neo-Babylonian era, 555-539 BCE, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The British Museum, London).
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The three columns of cuneiform inscriptions on this cylinder mention the building and reconstruction of various shrines, quays, gates, and processional boats by king Nebuchadnezzar II at Babylon for the Babylonian New Year Festival. From Babylon (modern Babel Governorate), neo-Babylonian era, 604-562 BCE, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The British Museum).
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This document records the king’s reconstructive work on the wall of the city of Babylon. From Babylon (modern Babel governorate), neo-Babylonian era, 625-605 BCE, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The British Museum, London).
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This document records the king’s reconstructive work at the cities of Sippar, Ururk, Ur, Borsippa, Larsa, and Dilbat. It also commemorates the king’s repairing of the temple of Ninkarrak (a form of the healing Goddess of Gula) at the city of Babylon. From Babylon (modern Babel Governorate), neo-Babylonian era, 604-562 BCE, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The British Museum, London).
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The temple of the sun God, Shamash, at Sippar reached a state of complete disrepair. The gods conveyed a message to the king via omens that he was given approval to rebuild and repair the temple of Shamash. This document records how the king successfully reconstructed the temple. From Sippar, neo-Babylonian era, 604-562 BCE, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The British Museum, London).
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The Assyrian King Ashurnasirpal II worships in front of god symbols. The cuneiform inscription describes his military campaign in the year 879 BCE, when the Assyrian army attacked the lands of the upper Tigris River, near Diyarbakir (modern southern Turkey). This stela was probably set up soon afterwards in one of the main cities under the Assyrian rule. Neo-Assyrian... [continue reading]
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A commercial letter (clay tablet) enclosed by an envelope (a clay covering). The letter was supposed to be opened by the recipient. 2nd millennium BCE, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq).
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The cuneiform inscriptions on this basalt statue mention that this is the god Kidudu, the guardian of the walls of Ashur city. It was erected by King Shalmaneser III. Neo-Assyrian era, 835 BCE. From Ashur, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The British Museum, London).
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A fragment from a wall relief that depicts the head of the Assyrian King Ashurnasirpal II. Neo-Assyrian era, 865-860 BCE. From the North-West palace at Nimrud (ancient Kalhu; Biblical calah), Mesopotamia, Iraq.(The British Museum, London).
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This protective spirit (Apkallu or Abkallu) guarded the entrance to the temple of Ninurta at Nimrud. A fish's head can be seen on Apkallu's head, and its skin hangs down over the back of Apkallu's body. Neo-Assyrian era, 865-860 BCE. From the Temple of Ninurta, Nimrud (ancient Kalhu; Biblical Calah), northern Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The British Museum, London).
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In this wall relief, the Assyrian King Ashurnasirpal II stands in a royal chariot and hunts lions. Neo-Assyrian era, 865-860 BCE. From Room B (the throne room), North-West palace at Nimrud (ancient Kalhu; Biblical Calah), northern Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The British Museum, London).
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The Assyrian king appears to raise his right hand and point his right index finger in a gesture of worship. He holds a mace, the symbol of authority. The Sacred Tree (which is probably a palm tree) lies at the middle of the relief. The king is protected by two human-headed and winged Apkallu figures. The relief was placed exactly behind the king's throne... [continue reading]
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A close-up image of the "Standard Inscription" of the Assyrian King Ashurnasirpal II. This is part of a wall relief that depicts an Apkallu (a protective spirit or sage). The Apkallu's left hand wears a bracelet with a "rosette" and holds a bucket (banduddu in Akkadian). A part of a sword with two lion heads is also seen. This inscription tells us the king's... [continue reading]
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A man holds a mace and a bow and a number of cows appear behind him. The name of the man is unknown. A fragment of a limestone wall relief from the palace of Tiglath-pileser III at Nimrud (ancient Kalhu; Biblical Calah). Neo-Assyrian era, 744-727 BCE. (Istanbul Archeological Museums/Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul, Turkey).
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This limestone altar was dedicated to the temple of the god Sibitti by the Assyrian King Sargon II. From Dur-Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad, Ninawa Governorate, Iraq), Mesopotamia. Neo-Assyrian era, 721-705 BCE. (Istanbul Archeological Museums/Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul, Turkey).
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This painted jar dates back to the Jemdet Nasr period, 3100-2900 BCE. The jar displays geometric grey and red motifs. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq).
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This terracotta clay tablet lists the names of Assyrian kings. From Assur (modern Qal'at Sharqat, Salah Al-Din Governorate, Iraq), Mesopotamia. Neo-Assyrian era, 7th century BCE. (Istanbul Archeological Museums/Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul, Turkey).
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A terracotta tablet with cuneiform inscriptions that narrates a love poem. This is the oldest love poem ever known. The poem was probably written by an unknown woman who was chosen as a bride for Shu-Sin, King of Ur, III dynasty. The poem was supposed to be sung at the New Year festival. The tablet was found at Nippur (modern Nuffar, Al-Qadisiyah Governorate... [continue reading]
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Lugal-Dalu was probably a local ruler of Adab. The inscriptions on the statue's right shoulder describe the depicted man as "king of Adab" and the statue as an offering to the temple of the god Esar (or E-Shar), the greatest god of the city of Adab. From Adab (modern Bismaya, Wasit Governorate, Iraq), Sumer, Southern Mesopotamia, Iraq, mid-third millennium... [continue reading]
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These two marble vases were inscribed with the name of Naram-Sin, king of Sumer and Akkad. Reign of Naram-Sin, 2254-2218 BCE. From Mesopotamia, Iraq. (Istanbul Archeological Museums/Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul, Turkey).
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This auroch was made of glazed terracotta bricks and once decorated part of the processional street at Babylon. From Babylon, Mesopotamia, Iraq. Reign of King Nebuchadnezzar II, 604-562 BCE. (Istanbul Archeological Museums/Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul, Turkey).
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This door lintel was sculpted with the shape of different gods' heads. Each god represents one day of the week. 2nd to 3rd century CE. From Hatra, Modern Al-Jazeera Region, Ninawa Governorate, Iraq. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq).
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This is one of the very few surviving artifacts from the Musasir Kingdom, 8th century BCE. It was found near Rowanduz village, modern Sulaimaniya Governorate, Iraq. The statue has lost most of its fine details because of natural erosion. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq).
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This partially broken painted pottery dates back to the Samarra culture, Mesopotamia, 6th millennium BCE. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq).
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This is the upper part of a sandstone statue which was found near Rowanduz village, modern Sulaimaniya Governorate, Iraq. The lack of inscriptions on this statue make it difficult to determine who this bearded man was. The statue is from the Musasir Kingdom. The precise location of the capital city of this kingdom is still unknown, but H. Lynch concluded... [continue reading]
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This painted bowl dates back to the Halaf period, Mesopotamia, 6th millennium BCE. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq).
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This reform text belongs to King Uru'inimgina (or URU-KA-GI-NA), king of Lagash. From Girsu (modern Tell Telloh, Dhi-Qar Governorate, Iraq), Southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Early dynastic period, 2351-2342 BCE. (Istanbul Archaeological Museums/Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul, Turkey).
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Cuneiform inscriptions on foundation cones record the building and rebuilding of various god and goddesses temples in Mesopotamia. One of these cones records the building of the temple of the god Numushda in the city of Kiritab by Enlil-Bani, king of Isin. Old Babylonian era, 2003-1595 BCE. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq).
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This clay tablet (with its clay envelope) was a legal document which documented the purchase of a house property. From Nippur (modern Nuffar, Al-Qadisiyah Governorate, Iraq), southern Mesopotamia. Old-Babylonian era, 1757 BCE. (Istanbul Archeological Museums/Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul, Turkey).
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The cuneiform inscriptions on this tablet narrate the story of "Lugalbanda and the Mountain Cave." Lugalbanda was Gilgamesh's father. This large literary document inscribed in Sumerian tells us how Lugalbanda was lost in the Kurdistan mountains (as they're called today). Old Babylonian era, 2003-1595 BCE. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq).
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This terracotta tablet is a smaller version of the original law code stela of King Hammurabi to be used in schools and courts. The tablet was found at Nippur (modern Nuffar, Al-Qadisiyah Governorate, Iraq), southern Mesopotamia. Old Babylonian era, 1790 BCE. (Istanbul Archaeological Museums/Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul, Turkey).
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In this wall relief, the Assyrian archers begin the assault on Lachish's city towers. In front of archers, a siege engine is being pushed up slowly on an artificial ramp, which was built by the Assyrians. The siege engine has a long battering ram - a heavy pole used to break through the walls and gateways of the city. From the Southwest palace at Nineveh... [continue reading]
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This law code is considered the oldest known law code surviving today. Many terracotta tablets of this law code have been excavated at several archaeological sites in Mesopotamia. This tablet was found at Nippur (modern Nuffar, Al-Qadisiyah Governorate, Iraq), southern Mesopotamia. Neo-Sumerian era, Ur III dynasty, 2112-2095 BCE. (Istanbul Archaeological Museums/Ancient... [continue reading]
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Inscribed on this rounded terracotta tablet is a cadastral text which registers real estate at Sippar. It was written in Akkadian language. Old Babylonian era, 18th century BCE. From Sippar (modern Tell Abu Habbah, Babil Governorate, Iraq), Mesopotamia. (Istanbul Archaeaological Museums/Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul, Turkey).
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This ball-body jar was found in the Faida district of the modern city of Musil, Ninawa Governorate, Iraq. It dates back to the Hassuna period, 6th millennium BCE. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq).
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This rounded coarse-ware dish was found in Tell Tapa Raza, Sharazor Plain, Modern Sulaimaniya Governorate, Iraq. It dates back to the Jarmo period, 7000 BCE. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq).
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A magical bowl with an incantation written in ink to ward off malevolent spirits. Clay, inscribed in Aramaic language, 6th to 8th century CE. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq).
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This wall relief delivers a very vivid description of the battlefield. The Assyrian army has built artificial ramps leading up to the city in order to transport their heavy equipment right up to the walls and gate. On the right, the Assyrian archers attack the city with their bows and arrows. On the left, siege engines are being pushed slowly up the ramps... [continue reading]
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A brick stamped with the name of the Kassite king Agum-Mari. The site and date of excavation are unknown. Kassite era, 1595-1157 BCE. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq).
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A brick stamped with the name of Ur-Nammu, king of Ur. Neo-Sumerian era, Ur III dynasty, 2111-2003 BCE. From Ur, southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq).
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After the capture of the city of Lachish, the victorious Assyrian army deported its people into exile and new settlements within the Assyrian empire. This wall relief depicts the deportation of barefeet men (who appear handcuffed) and women (who carry their belongings). A small child also appears next to a woman. From the South-West palace at Nineveh (modern... [continue reading]
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This is a fragment of a wall relief which shows Assyrian slingers in action. The four men appear to launch small round stones into the air, aiming at the enemy troops who stand at the top of the city walls to defend their besieged city. Some of the slinger stones were excavated at the main gate of Lachish. From the South-West palace at Nineveh (modern Kuyunjik... [continue reading]
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This wall relief depicts the procession of prisoners after the capture of Lachish by the Assyrian army. Two Assyrian soldiers guide the prisoners from behind and some of the prisoners kneel before the Assyrian king (who is not shown in this image). The prisoners most likely represent Lachish's officials, as some of them were slaughtered. From the South-West... [continue reading]
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This terracotta prism was found in Nineveh. It documents Sennacherib's military campaigns and the rebuilding of the city of Nineveh. The siege and the capture of Lachish and Jerusalem occurred during his 3rd military campaign in 701 BCE. Details of the account of the siege are given in column iii, lines 38-81. From Nineveh (modern Kuyunjik, Mousil city... [continue reading]
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These sling stones were excavated at the main gate of the city of Lachish. The Assyrian soldiers attacked the city wall towers with these sling stones, a scene which has been depicted on some wall reliefs in Sennacherib's South-West palace at Nineveh. (The British Museum London).
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This wall relief depicts the Assyrian king Sennacherib after the fall of Lachish (Lakhisha), the second largest city in Judah Kingdom. The king sits on a marvelous throne and watches prisoners. He also greets an Assyrian official who appears to be in very close proximity to him, almost touching the king. This man most likely represents the commander-in-chief... [continue reading]
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These bronze arrowheads were found at the city of Lachish. The city was besieged and then conquered by the Assyrian king Sennacherib in 701 BCE. (The British Museum, London).
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An alabaster inlay of a bull. Early dynastic period, 2750-2300 BCE. From Sumer, southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The Burrell Collection, Glasgow, Scotland).
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These were found in Barda Balka and are considered the oldest human-made artifacts among the whole museum's collections. Circa 100,000 BCE, from Barda Balka (near modern Chamchamal, Sulaimaniya Governorate, Iraq). (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq).
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The inscriptions on this stone mention the name of the Sassanian king Narseh and they were written in middle Persian and Parthian languages. Sassanid period, around 300 CE. From Paikuli tower, modern Sulaimaniya Governorate, Iraq. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq).
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This is the entrance into the black cave (or Ashkawti Tarik in Kurdish), which is one of the most important caves of Hazar Merd area. It is a single lofty chamber 11 by 12 meter wide. The caves date back to 50,000 BCE and it was excavated by Dorothy Garrod in 1928 CE. It lies 13 km to the west of modern Sulaimaniya city, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
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This hand-axe was found in Hazar Merd cave, a paleolithic cave which lies 13 km west of modern Sulaimaniya city, Iraq. It dates back to 50,000 BCE. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq).
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The cuneiform inscriptions on this door socket mention the name of the Kassite king Kurikalzu. Kassite era, 1595-1157 BCE. From Dur-Kurikalzu (modern Agarguf, southwest of Baghdad). (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq). (A door socket is the stone that the door revolves on to open and close. The part of the door where the hinges are now was a log, the end of which turned in this stone.)
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