The Ptolemaic influence extended from Carthage in the Maghreb via Alexandria in Egypt to Meroë in Nubia. Ptolemaic trade routes extended as far south as Abyssinia and Somaliland in Africa, as well as to India by sea trade. The Seleucid influence extended from Antioch in the West via Seleucia in Babylonia and Persepolis in Persia to Bactra, the gateway to the Asian steppes… and to Xian in China along the Silk Road. By these routes, Greek culture was exported, and exotic goods such as elephants, ivory, pearls, and silk were imported into the Mediterranean.
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- Hermann Kinder, Werner Hilgemann. dtv Atlas der Weltgeschichte. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1995.
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