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The term “Aryan” has had a complicated history. The Sanskrit word ārya, the source of the English word, was mainly the self designation of the Vedic Indic people although during time it developed some secondary meanings. It has a cognate in Iranian arya, where it is also a self designation. Both the Indic and Iranian terms descend from a form ārya... [continue reading]
The Kingdom of Mittani (known to the people of the land, and the Assyrians, as Hanigalbat and to the Egyptians as Naharin and Metani) once stretched from present-day northern Iraq, down through Syria and into Turkey and was once considered a great nation. Few records of the people themselves exist today but correspondence between kings of Mitanni and those... [continue reading]
Mesopotamia (from the Greek, meaning 'between two rivers’) was an ancient region in the eastern Mediterranean bounded in the northeast by the Zagros Mountains and in the southeast by the Arabian Plateau, corresponding to today’s Iraq, mostly, but also parts of modern-day Iran, Syria and Turkey. The 'two rivers' of the name referred... [continue reading]