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The word 'war' comes to English by the old High German language word 'Werran’ (to confuse or to cause confusion) through the Old English 'Werre' (meaning the same), and is a state of open and usually declared armed conflict between political entities such as sovereign states or between rival political or social factions within the same... [continue reading]
The city of Athens, Greece, with its famous Acropolis, has come to symbolize the whole of the country in the popular imagination; and not without cause. Athens, which began as a small, Mycenaen community (though still worthy of the massive Cyclopean stonework which characterized the great palaces of the Peloponnese) grew to become a city which, at its height, epitomized... [continue reading]
Corcyra (modern Corfu and also known as Kerkyra) located in the Ionian sea is one of the northern most Greek islands and was an important polis or city-state in the Archaic and Classical periods. Possessing a significant naval fleet and controlling access to the Adriatic, the island was often fought over by larger city-states such as Corinth and Athens... [continue reading]
The Peloponnesian Wars fought between Athens and Sparta and their respective allies came in two stages, the first from c. 460 to 446 BCE and the second and more significant war from 431 to 404 BCE. With battles occurring at home and abroad, the long and complex conflict was damaging to both sides but Sparta, with financial help from Persia, finally... [continue reading]